- Open Access
Coupling treatment planning with navigation system: a new technological approach in treatment of head and neck tumors by electrochemotherapy
- Ales Groselj†1,
- Bor Kos†2,
- Maja Cemazar3,
- Jure Urbancic1,
- Grega Kragelj1,
- Masa Bosnjak3,
- Biserka Veberic1,
- Primoz Strojan4,
- Damijan Miklavcic2 and
- Gregor Sersa3Email author
© Groselj et al.; 2015
- Published: 27 August 2015
Electrochemotherapy provides highly effective local treatment for a variety of tumors. In deep-seated tumors of the head and neck, due to complex anatomy of the region or inability to cover the whole tumor with standard electrodes, the use of long single needle electrodes is mandatory. In such cases, a treatment plan provides the information on the optimal configuration of the electrodes to adequately cover the tumor with electric field, while the accurate placement of the electrodes in the surgical room in patients can remain a problem. Therefore, during electrochemotherapy of two head and neck lymph-node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma origin, a navigation system for placement of electrodes was used.
Patient and methods
Electrochemotherapy of two lymph-node metastases of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, one in the left parotid gland and the other in the neck just behind the left mandibular angle, was performed using intravenous administration of bleomycin and long single needle electrodes. The tumors were treated according to the prepared treatment plan, and executed with the use of navigation system.
Coupling of treatment plan with the navigation system aided to an accurate placement of the electrodes. The navigation system helped the surgeon to identify the exact location of the tumors, and helped with the positioning of the long needle electrodes during their insertion, according to treatment plan. Five electrodes were inserted for each metastasis, one centrally in the tumor and four in the periphery of the tumor. Five weeks after electrochemotherapy, computed tomography images demonstrated partial response of the first metastasis and complete response of the second one. Six weeks after electrochemotherapy, fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimen obtained from the treated lesions revealed necrosis and inflammatory cells, without any viable tumor cells.
We describe a new technological approach for electrochemotherapy of deep-seated head and neck tumors, coupling of the treatment planning with navigation system for accurate placement of the single long needle electrodes into and around the tumors, according to the treatment plan. Evidence of its effectiveness on two lymph-node metastases of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma origin in neck lymph is provided.
- head and neck tumors
- squamous cell carcinoma
- treatment planning
- navigation system
Electroporation based technology for biomedical applications is quickly developing . Using different electroporation protocols it can be used for tumor ablation (irreversible electroporation [2–8], nanopulses ), for gene transfer to cells i.e. gene electrotransfer , and delivery of drugs i.e. electrochemotherapy [11, 12]. Electrochemotherapy uses electroporation for increased drug delivery to tumors and its effectiveness has been demonstrated in a large variety of tumors , predominantly for the treatment of cutaneous tumors using electrodes with fixed geometry [12, 14]. For the treatment of deep seated tumors, single long needle electrodes were developed, that can also be placed in an irregular pattern in order to cover irregularly shaped tumors larger than 2 cm in diameter . With appropriate imaging support, this approach also enables appropriate placement of the electrodes with respect to sensitive structures such as major vessels and nerve bundles. The applicability of this approach has already been demonstrated and verified in the treatment of liver metastases, where antitumor effectiveness of electrochemotherapy was confirmed also in tumors located in close proximity or in-between the major vessels [16, 17].
A treatment planning method has been developed for the treatment of deep seated tumors [18, 19]. It has been evolving through the experience in treatment of liver metastases [16, 17], and now also a web based application is under development (http://www.visifield.com). The aim of this method is to prepare treatment plans consisting of instructions for positioning of electrodes and the voltages to be applied to each electrode pair, which should ensure a successful treatment. Briefly, the treatment plan is prepared using Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) based tumor images, which are used for segmentation of the tumor and important normal structures in its surrounding. The electric field distribution is computed taking into account different tissue conductivities  and changes in conductivity due to electroporation . Adequate coverage of the tumor (i.e. target) is assured with optimized electrode position and voltages. However, deviations in implementation of the treatment plan can occur during the treatment in the clinic, because the exact position of the tumor inside the body and in its relation to the neighboring structures i) is different compared to the tumor position during treatment plan creation; or ii) cannot be determined with sufficient precision. In both instances, spatial relationship of the electrodes to the treated tumor does not correspond to the treatment plan and electric field coverage of the tumor is suboptimal. Consequently, the treatment effectiveness could be seriously hampered and toxicity increased . Treatment effectiveness could be improved with the aid of the existing techniques that enable exact positioning of the tumor and electrodes in the tissue during the clinical intervention.
In image-guided surgery, navigation system is used as assistance to display real-time data on tumor position in relation to the preoperative CT or MR scans of a patient. It has been successfully implemented in otorhinolaryngologic surgery as a tool to access difficult anatomic areas and for stereotactic biopsy procedures.
With respect to effectiveness of electrochemotherapy in cutaneous tumors, clinical results gained in the group of tumors of the head and neck region is less promising [13, 23, 24]. Possible explanations for the worse outcome are: deep seated parts of these tumors exist, hidden under the visible skin or mucosal surface and of considerable volume, head and neck tumors typically have irregular shape, and finally, the size of these tumors can be up to 10 cm in diameter. For such tumors, electrodes with fixed geometry are not suitable, because they cannot be inserted deep enough, to reach the deep margins of these tumors. Thus, the use of single long needle electrodes is indicated in such cases . When using long needle electrodes, treatment planning with visualization of electric field distribution and coverage of the tumor can offer a significant advantage over blind insertion of the needles. Furthermore, coupling of the treatment plan with navigation system improves precision of electrode placement during the procedure and provides a technological advancement in the treatment of deep seated tumors in the head and neck region.
The aim of our study was to couple treatment planning with a navigation system as a new technological approach in treatment of head and neck tumors by electrochemotherapy. The feasibility and effectiveness of this concept was demonstrated in the case of a patient with two lymphatic metastases in the region of the head and neck.
An 88-year-old male patient with a history of several surgical procedures for squamous and basal cell skin cancers was treated at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervicofacial Surgery, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. The patient had previously been irradiated due inoperable lymphatic metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma origin, located in the left parotid region. Tumor was 42 mm in diameter, deeply infiltrated into the left carotid space and jugular vein. Complete response of the tumor was achieved after a cumulative dose of 70 Gy delivered by 6 MV linear accelerator photon beam in 2 Gy daily fractions.
Eleven months after radiotherapy a new lesion was clinically detected behind the left mandibular angle. In addition, diagnostic workup also revealed disease recurrence in the deep lobe of the left parotid gland. On CT scans, diameters of the two lesions were 20.3 mm (left parotid gland, metastasis No. 1) and a 20.6 mm (centrally necrotic lymph node behind the left mandibular angle, metastasis No. 2). Fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed metastases of squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was offered electrochemotherapy as the only potentially curative treatment option, and after detailed information about its advantages and drawbacks he signed informed consent for treatment and publication of the data. The study was approved by the National Ethics Committee 182/02/14.
The tips and entry points of the 5 individual needles were marked on original CT images, by setting the corresponding pixel intensity values to 3000. The same DICOM images were then imported into the navigation system, and the marked points were located on the images and used to position the guiding vector of the navigation system. The same images were used for the treatment planning; the interval between image acquisition and treatment was 27 days. In order to keep the minimal error, it is recommended to keep the time interval as short as possible, since in the meantime the tumor may grow and change its shape as well as the shape and position of the neighboring structures.
Optical navigation system Colibri (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) with ENT V2.1.1 software package was used. The system itself is capable of navigation within less than 1 mm accuracy; built-in tolerance in registration with system reported good precision is 1 mm. After the registration confirming known anatomical points on patient and in navigation, a test of precision is made by the surgeon and is demanded by system software. In case of discrepancy of more than 1 mm re-registration is done until expected accuracy is confirmed.
Based on the treatment plan, five stainless steel needle electrodes were positioned with navigation system guidance. Electrodes were positioned in a star pattern with 1 cm center-to-center distances between the central electrode positioned in the tumor and the outside electrodes and 1.4 cm center-to-center distance between the outside electrodes; 1000 V was applied between center electrode and the outside electrodes, while 1200 V was applied between each pair of outer electrodes. This was enough to ensure at least 500 V/cm of electric field strength in the whole tumor tissue which is well above reversible threshold for tumor tissue and increases robustness of the treatment.
Treatment and clinical outcome
Advantages of the single long needle electrodes
So far, the technology of electrochemotherapy has evolved predominantly for the treatment of cutaneous and superficial tumors, not extending deeper than few cm below the skin. Electrodes with fixed geometry that can reach up to 3 cm in depth are used for this purpose. However, these are often not long enough to reach the base of deep-seated lesions in the head and neck region, compromising treatment results . In addition to that, due to the irregularity in shape of head and neck tumors, the coverage of the whole tumor with such electrodes is often hampered or even not possible. In the future, the development of new types of electrodes may be anticipated, specifically for the tumors in head and neck region. For example, the first prototype has already been designed for the treatment of brain tumors. The electrodes are inserted through the skull, and afterwards extended in umbrella like fashion to encompass the tumors .
However, complex anatomy with proximity of several vital structures (e.g. blood vessels, cranial nerves), limited space, bony structures, and usually rather large tumors of irregular shape represent a considerable challenge which could be overcome by using single long needle electrodes. Long needle electrodes were developed for electrochemotherapy of the deep seated tumors. So far, they were used in the treatment of sarcomas and of liver metastases [28, 34]. Our group has gained experience in the use of such electrodes for the treatment of liver metastases of the colorectal adenocarcinoma . The recently published study provided evidence that the electrodes with 3 or 4 cm of active, un-insulated part can be placed into the tissue, exposing the tumor to the active part and shielding the normal tissue. Furthermore, their use was safe also in the treatment of tumors adjacent to big tumor blood vessels . Comparison between the effectiveness of electrochemotherapy when using electrodes with fixed geometry and the single long needle electrodes demonstrated that the latter provided comparable antitumor effectiveness to those with the fixed geometry .
Importance of the treatment plan for effective electrochemotherapy
Comparison of measured currents and currents computed using numerical simulations.
1 - 2
1 - 4
2 - 3
3 - 4
2 - 5
1 - 5
3 - 5
4 - 5
Based on the treatment plan, the electrodes were effectively placed and the treated area adequately electroporated, which was demonstrated by complete response of the metastasis behind the left mandibular angle (Metastasis No. 2) and partial response of the metastasis in the left parotid gland (Metastasis No. 1; maximal diameter before and after electrochemotherapy: 20.3 mm and 14.3 mm). Based on the radiological examination 5 weeks after electrochemotherapy the difference in the response of the two metastases to electrochemotherapy could most likely be ascribed to inadequate drug distribution. Namely, the area of the Metastasis No. 1 has been previously irradiated with 70 Gy, which most likely compromised vasculature in this region. It has been suggested that this problem could be overcome by combining intravenous and intratumoral bleomycin administration .
Aid of the navigation system
Navigation system aids the surgeon in locating the tumor based on the pre-treatment CT or MRI images and is frequently used in surgical interventions in the head and neck region. The use of navigation system enables superior orientation in 3-D space. Data is acquired by the navigational computer consisting of main unit with interface and processor, sensors on navigational antenna with twin infrared cameras and multiple emitters (IR camera), navigation star fixed on patient and navigated pointer free in 3-D environment of patient's skin [37–40].
Based on our first experience, the use of navigation system substantially improves the accuracy of electrode placement. Pre-treatment CT or MRI images are imported into the system and with the aid of the fixed markers, a precise position of the tumor in the patient can be verified with these images. In addition, the system significantly contributes to the accurate positioning of the electrodes in the patient. This is of crucial importance, since the entry and the angle of the electrode insertion can be controlled also in deep-seated tumors. The drawback of the system used in our case is that the depth of the electrode penetration cannot be controlled; however, this obstacle can be compensated by the measurement of the length of the electrode penetration into the tissue which should be adjusted according to the treatment plan.
In the presented case, treatment planning was coupled with navigation system. All electrodes were positioned according to the treatment plan, and electrochemotherapy executed as planned. As can be seen from Figure 3, the electrodes were positioned to within 1-2 pixels of the marked entry trajectory, corresponding to an error of up to 1.14 mm (the pixel size was 0.57 mm). The depth of the electrode insertion was measured by the ruler (the depth of electrode insertion could not be controlled by the navigation system as the geometry of the needle electrodes and appropriate navigation markers for electrochemotherapy have not yet been implemented into the guidance system). The insertion of the electrodes required some extra time, compared to the routine electrochemotherapy using fixed geometry electrodes. However, one must bear in mind that this technological approach is amenable for specific clinical situations with very limited treatment options that demand more attention than usual cases. In addition, it is expected to improve the efficacy of electrochemotherapy in head and neck region. Namely, currently available data indicate considerably lower efficacy of electrochemotherapy in non-melanoma head and neck cancers, compared to the basal cell carcinoma in the same region (CR rate: 25% vs. 78%) [24, 41]. Electrochemotherapy is also very effective in some other tumor types, such as melanoma, with complete response rate of 73.7% after single treatment [42, 43]. The reason for this difference is probably the lack of adequate technological solutions, i.e. the appropriate electrodes and of the approach, assuring satisfactory coverage of tumor area with electric field. The approach described here may provide improvement of results in such cases, and increase the efficacy of electrochemotherapy with single needles compared to treatment with standard electrodes of fixed geometry. Furthermore, with this technological solution, also deep-seated tumors of the head and neck can be placed on the list of indications for electrochemotherapy.
Our study is the first showing that coupling treatment planning with the navigation system for precise placement of long single needle electrodes is a feasible and effective way to approach deep-seated tumors in the complex anatomical region of the head and neck. This technological approach may lead to improved therapeutic effectiveness of electrochemotherapy in larger tumors of head and neck region, which are often located deep under the skin, are irregular in shape, and/or close to sensitive structures. Although primarily developed for neurosurgical application, intraoperative navigation has gained acceptance in head and neck surgery, especially in the functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Therefore, the aid of navigation system represents a technological advancement for electrochemotherapy of deep seated tumors, since navigation system can provide identification of tumor position and accurate placement of the electrodes.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this article and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor of this journal.
The authors acknowledge the financial support from the state budget by the Slovenian Research Agency (program no. P3-0003, P2-0249, P3-0307). Costs for publication were funded by program grant P3-0003. Research was conducted in the scope of EBAM European Associated Laboratory (LEA). This manuscript is a result of the networking efforts of the COST Action TD1104 (http://www.electroporation.net). We are thankful to prof. Greta Strojan Flezar, for the cytopathology of the tumor specimens.
This article has been published as part of BioMedical Engineering OnLine Volume 14 Supplement 3, 2015: Select articles from the 6th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (MBEC 2014). The full contents of the supplement are available online at http://www.biomedical-engineering-online.com/supplements/14/S3.
- Yarmush ML, Golberg A, Serša G, Kotnik T, Miklavčič D: Electroporation-Based Technologies for Medicine: Principles, Applications, and Challenges. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2014, 16: 295-320. 10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071813-104622.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garcia PA, Rossmeisl JH, Neal RE, Ellis TL, Olson JD, Henao-Guerrero N, Robertson J, Davalos RV: Intracranial Nonthermal Irreversible Electroporation: In Vivo Analysis. J Membr Biol. 2010, 236: 127-136. 10.1007/s00232-010-9284-z.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garcia PA, Pancotto T, Rossmeisl JH, Henao-Guerrero N, Gustafson NR, Daniel GB, Robertson JL, Ellis TL, Davalos RV: Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE) and adjuvant fractionated radiotherapeutic multimodal therapy for intracranial malignant glioma in a canine patient. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2011, 10: 73-83.Google Scholar
- Neal RE, Rossmeisl JH, Garcia PA, Lanz OI, Henao-Guerrero N, Davalos RV: Successful treatment of a large soft tissue sarcoma with irreversible electroporation. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2011, 29: e372-377. 10.1200/JCO.2010.33.0902.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garcia PA, Rossmeisl JH, Neal RE, Ellis TL, Davalos RV: A Parametric Study Delineating Irreversible Electroporation from Thermal Damage Based on a Minimally Invasive Intracranial Procedure. Biomed Eng Online. 2011, 10: 34-10.1186/1475-925X-10-34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mandel Y, Laufer S, Belkin M, Rubinsky B, Pe'er J, Frenkel S: Irreversible electroporation of human primary uveal melanoma in enucleated eyes. PloS One. 2013, 8: e71789-10.1371/journal.pone.0071789.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Martin RCG, Philips P, Ellis S, Hayes D, Bagla S: Irreversible electroporation of unresectable soft tissue tumors with vascular invasion: effective palliation. BMC Cancer. 2014, 14: 540-10.1186/1471-2407-14-540.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang C, Davalos R, Bischof J: A Review of Basic to Clinical Studies of Irreversible Electroporation Therapy. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2015, 62: 4-20.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nuccitelli R, Wood R, Kreis M, Athos B, Huynh J, Lui K, Nuccitelli P, Epstein EH: First-in-human trial of nanoelectroablation therapy for basal cell carcinoma: proof of method. Exp Dermatol. 2014, 23: 135-137. 10.1111/exd.12303.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Heller R, Heller LC: Gene electrotransfer clinical trials. Adv Genet. 2015, 89: 235-262.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sersa G, Miklavcic D, Cemazar M, Rudolf Z, Pucihar G, Snoj M: Electrochemotherapy in treatment of tumours. EJSO. 2008, 34: 232-240. 10.1016/j.ejso.2007.05.016.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miklavčič D, Mali B, Kos B, Heller R, Serša G: Electrochemotherapy: from the drawing board into medical practice. Biomed Eng Online. 2014, 13: 29-10.1186/1475-925X-13-29.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mali B, Jarm T, Snoj M, Sersa G, Miklavcic D: Antitumor effectiveness of electrochemotherapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Surg Oncol J Eur Soc Surg Oncol Br Assoc Surg Oncol. 2013, 39 (1): 4-16.Google Scholar
- Spratt DE, Gordon Spratt EA, Wu S, DeRosa A, Lee NY, Lacouture ME, Barker CA: Efficacy of skin-directed therapy for cutaneous metastases from advanced cancer: a meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol Off J Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2014, 32: 3144-3155. 10.1200/JCO.2014.55.4634.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rebersšek M, Miklavcic D, Bertacchini C, Sack M: Cell membrane electroporation-Part 3: the equipment. IEEE Electr Insul Mag. 2014, 30: 8-18.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Edhemovic I, Gadzijev EM, Brecelj E, Miklavcic D, Kos B, Zupanic A, Mali B, Jarm T, Pavliha D, Marcan M, Gasljevic G, Gorjup V, Music M, Vavpotic TP, Cemazar M, Snoj M, Sersa G: Electrochemotherapy: a new technological approach in treatment of metastases in the liver. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2011, 10: 475-485.Google Scholar
- Edhemovic I, Brecelj E, Gasljevic G, Marolt Music M, Gorjup V, Mali B, Jarm T, Kos B, Pavliha D, Grcar Kuzmanov B, Cemazar M, Snoj M, Miklavcic D, Gadzijev EM, Sersa G: Intraoperative electrochemotherapy of colorectal liver metastases. J Surg Oncol. 2014, 110 (3): 320-327. 10.1002/jso.23625.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pavliha D, Kos B, Županič A, Marčan M, Serša G, Miklavčič D: Patient-specific treatment planning of electrochemotherapy: Procedure design and possible pitfalls. Bioelectrochemistry. 2012, 87: 265-273.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pavliha D, Mušič MM, Serša G, Miklavčič D: Electroporation-based treatment planning for deep-seated tumors based on automatic liver segmentation of MRI images. PloS One. 2013, 8: e69068-10.1371/journal.pone.0069068.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pavšelj N, Miklavčič D: Numerical modeling in electroporation-based biomedical applications. Radiol Oncol. 2008, 42: 159-168. 10.2478/v10019-008-0008-2.Google Scholar
- Corovic S, Lackovic I, Sustaric P, Sustar T, Rodic T, Miklavcic D: Modeling of electric field distribution in tissues during electroporation. Biomed Eng OnLine. 2013, 12: 16-10.1186/1475-925X-12-16.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kos B, Zupanic A, Kotnik T, Snoj M, Sersa G, Miklavcic D: Robustness of treatment planning for electrochemotherapy of deep-seated tumors. J Membr Biol. 2010, 236: 147-153. 10.1007/s00232-010-9274-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mevio N, Bertino G, Occhini A, Scelsi D, Tagliabue M, Mura F, Benazzo M: Electrochemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent head and neck cancers: preliminary results. Tumori. 2012, 98: 308-313.Google Scholar
- Campana LG, Mali B, Sersa G, Valpione S, Giorgi CA, Strojan P, Miklavcic D, Rossi CR: Electrochemotherapy in non-melanoma head and neck cancers: a retrospective analysis of the treated cases. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014, 52: 957-964. 10.1016/j.bjoms.2014.08.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yushkevich PA, Piven J, Hazlett HC, Smith RG, Ho S, Gee JC, Gerig G: User-guided 3D active contour segmentation of anatomical structures: Significantly improved efficiency and reliability. NeuroImage. 2006, 31: 1116-1128. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.01.015.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sel D, Lebar A, Miklavcic D: Feasibility of employing model-based optimization of pulse amplitude and electrode distance for effective tumor electropermeabilization. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2007, 54: 773-781.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Corovic S, Zupanic A, Miklavcic D: Numerical modeling and optimization of electric field distribution in subcutaneous tumor treated with electrochemotherapy using needle electrodes. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci. 2008, 36: 1665-1672.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miklavcic D, Snoj M, Zupanic A, Kos B, Cemazar M, Kropivnik M, Bracko M, Pecnik T, Gadzijev E, Sersa G: Towards treatment planning and treatment of deep-seated solid tumors by electrochemotherapy. Biomed Eng Online. 2010, 9: 10-10.1186/1475-925X-9-10.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Županič A, Kos B, Miklavcic D: Treatment planning of electroporation-based medical interventions: electrochemotherapy, gene electrotransfer and irreversible electroporation. Phys Med Biol. 2012, 57: 5425-5440. 10.1088/0031-9155/57/17/5425.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miklavčič D, Serša G, Brecelj E, Gehl J, Soden D, Bianchi G, Ruggieri P, Rossi CR, Campana LG, Jarm T: Electrochemotherapy: technological advancements for efficient electroporation-based treatment of internal tumors. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2012, 50: 1213-1225. 10.1007/s11517-012-0991-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mali B, Jarm T, Corovic S, Paulin-Kosir MS, Cemazar M, Sersa G, Miklavcic D: The effect of electroporation pulses on functioning of the heart. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2008, 46: 745-757. 10.1007/s11517-008-0346-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mir L, Gehl J, Sersa G, Collins C, Garbay J, Billard V, Geertsen P, Rudolf Z, O'Sullivan G, Marty M: Standard operating procedures of the electrochemotherapy: Instructions for the use of bleomycin or cisplatin administered either systemically or locally and electric pulses delivered by the Cliniporator (TM) by means of invasive or non-invasive electrodes. EJC Suppl. 2006, 4: 14-25.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mahmood F, Gehl J: Optimizing clinical performance and geometrical robustness of a new electrode device for intracranial tumor electroporation. Bioelectrochemistry Amst Neth. 2011, 81: 10-16. 10.1016/j.bioelechem.2010.12.002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Haberl S, Miklavcic D, Sersa G, Frey W, Rubinsky B: Cell membrane electroporation-Part 2: the applications. IEEE Electr Insul Mag. 2013, 29: 29-37.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Edhemovic I, Brecelj E, Gasljevic G, Music MM, Gorjup V, Mali B, Jarm T, Kos B, Pavliha D, Kuzmanov BG, Cemazar M, Snoj M, Miklavčič D, Gadzijev EM, Sersa G: The First Clinical Experience with Electrochemotherapy of the Colorectal Liver Metastases. 6th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering. Edited by: Lacković I, Vasic D. 2015, Springer International Publishing, 45: 805-808. 10.1007/978-3-319-11128-5_200. IFMBE ProceedingsGoogle Scholar
- Miklavcic D, Beravs K, Semrov D, Cemazar M, Demsar F, Sersa G: The importance of electric field distribution for effective in vivo electroporation of tissues. Biophys J. 1998, 74: 2152-2158. 10.1016/S0006-3495(98)77924-X.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mösges R, Schlöndorff G: A new imaging method for intraoperative therapy control in skull-base surgery. Neurosurg Rev. 1988, 11: 245-247. 10.1007/BF01741417.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schlöndorff G, Mösges R, Meyer-Ebrecht D, Krybus W, Adams L: [CAS (computer assisted surgery). A new procedure in head and neck surgery]. HNO. 1989, 37: 187-190.Google Scholar
- Klimek L, Mösges R, Schlöndorff G, Mann W: Development of computer-aided surgery for otorhinolaryngology. Comput Aided Surg Off J Int Soc Comput Aided Surg. 1998, 3 (4): 194-201. 10.3109/10929089809148145.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grevers G, Leunig A, Klemens A, Hagedorn H: Computerassistierte Chirurgie der Nasennebenhöhlen - Technologie und klinische Erfahrungen mit dem Vector-Vision-Compact®-System an 102 Patienten. Laryngo-Rhino-Otol. 2002, 81: 476-483. 10.1055/s-2002-33291.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gargiulo M, Papa A, Capasso P, Moio M, Cubicciotti E, Parascandolo S: Electrochemotherapy for non-melanoma head and neck cancers: clinical outcomes in 25 patients. Ann Surg. 2012, 255: 1158-1164. 10.1097/SLA.0b013e31824f68b2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Marty M, Sersa G, Garbay J, Gehl J, Collins C, Snoj M, Billard V, Geertsen P, Larkin J, Miklavcic D: Electrochemotherapy - An easy, highly effective and safe treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases: Results of ESOPE (European Standard Operating Procedures of Electrochemotherapy) study. Eur J Cancer Suppl. 2006, 4: 3-13.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mali B, Miklavcic D, Campana LG, Cemazar M, Sersa G, Snoj M, Jarm T: Tumor size and effectiveness of electrochemotherapy. Radiol Oncol. 2013, 47: 32-41.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.