Skip to main content

Table 4 Comparison of Windkessel, 1D and tube-load models

From: A review on low-dimensional physics-based models of systemic arteries: application to estimation of central aortic pressure

Model type Windkessel models 1D models Tube-load models
Model structure Including capacitors, resistors and inductance Dividing the arterial tree into many small segments Consisting of multiple tubes with terminal loads
Model parameters Few A lot Few
Easy to estimate Difficult to estimate Easy to estimate
Complexity Low High Moderate
Accuracy Low High Moderate
Simulate wave propagation and reflection phenomenon No Yes Yes
Inflow condition Aortic flow function Aortic flow or pressure waveforms Aortic pressure waveforms
Aortic pressure waveforms Aortic flow function
Heart model
Outflow condition Venous pressure Pure resistance Windkessel model
Windkessel model Generic pole-zero model
Structured-tree model Pressure
Geometrical and mechanical properties None Vessel diameter, length, thickness, elasticity and blood viscosity Vessel length and elasticity