Preface: Computational and experimental methods for biological research: cardiovascular diseases and beyond
BioMedical Engineering OnLine volume 15, Article number: 157 (2016)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Huge effort has been made in many disciplines including medical imaging, computational modeling, biomechanics, bioengineering, medical devices, animal and clinical studies, population studies as well as genomic, molecular, cellular and organ-level studies seeking improved methods for early detection, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of these diseases. Following the success of our special issue last year , experts in various disciplines were invited to write papers covering important areas in biomedical research, including medical images [2–5], arteries [6–10], aneurysm [11–14], some heart and lung issues [15–17], medical devices and treatment techniques [18–24], microscale studies at cell and molecule levels [25–28], and others [29–36]. A total of 35 papers were included in this special issue, with a good spectrum of coverage.
In the modern diagnosis process, medical images have the utmost importance. Zhu et al. presented a feasibility study of T2-prepared segmented 3D-Gradient-Echo for fast T2-weighted high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of the carotid artery wall at 3T . They reported that the acquisition time using 3D-Gradient-Echo could be substantially reduced to about 25% of the respective 3D-TSE technique. Xing et al.  proposed a new protocol for computing wall shear stress based on contrast-enhanced micro-CT imaging in murine carotid arteries. Contrast-enhanced micro-CT was performed using eXIA 160. They reported that eXIA 160-enhanced micro-CT allowed clear visualization and assessment of the RCCA in all eight animals. No adverse biological effects were observed from the use of eXIA 160. Li et al.  used machine learning algorithm models in ApoE−/− mice to predict carotid plaque progression. They found that contralateral carotid artery diameter at 7 days after surgery was the most reliable predictive factor in plaque progression. They achieved over 87.5% accuracy, 80% sensitivity, and 95% specificity with support vector machine (SVM). Tian et al.  provided comparison of lesion outline and temperature field determined by different ways in atrial radiofrequency ablation.
In the “artery” category, we have papers covering deformation of three-dimensional red blood cells in non-uniform capillaries , study of neo-aortic root for arterial switch operation , study of effect of LVAD on aortic blood flow pattern , and study for the risk of Stanford type-A aortic dissection with different tear size and location . It also included a study of mechanical anisotropy of porcine thoracic aorta by uniaxial tensile tests .
For aneurysm, Xiong et al.  presented a hemodynamics study of an innovative multilayer stent for treatment of aneurysms. Li et al.  studied the pressure shielding ability of stent-graft after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Zhang introduced a phantom-based experimental validation of fast virtual deployment of self-expandable stents for cerebral aneurysms . Xu and Liu studied potential association between flow instability and rupture in patients with matched-pairs of ruptured-unruptured intracranial aneurysms . Their results demonstrated highly disturbed states of the blood flows in the ruptured aneurysms of the two patients with multiple aneurysms. The ruptured aneurysms exhibit obviously temporal intra-cycle wall shear stress (WSS) fluctuations rather than the unruptured aneurysms of the same patient. Cycle-to-cycle fluctuations are further observed in the ruptured aneurysms when the flow turns to decelerate .
Effectiveness of stents and grafts were studied in [18, 22, 23]. Gu et al.  studied the effect of captopril on the performance of the control strategies of BJUT-II VAD. Zhang et al.  provided an optimization study of patient-specific design of flow diverters made from helix-like wires.
Micro-scale studies included β1 integrin signaling in asymmetric migration of keratinocytes under mechanical stretch in a co-cultured wound repair model  and mechanical regulation of calcium signaling of HL-60 on P-selectin under flow, among others. Wang et al.  used a multi-component parallel-plate flow chamber system for studying the effect of exercise-induced shear stress on endothelial cells. Their cellular experiments demonstrated that the actin microfilaments and the production of NO within cells exposed to the two different wall shear stress waveforms exhibit different dynamic behaviors; there are larger numbers of actin microfilaments and higher level NO in cells exposed in exercise-induced wall shear stress condition than resting wall shear stress condition. Some recent developments in computational and experimental methods for biological research beyond cardiovascular system were also included in the issue [29–36]. They included studies for bones [29, 31], mental stress , eyes [32–34], and tumour growth . Effects of swimming training on carotid arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in young overweight adults were investigated . This enabled a good coverage of different aspects of recent developments in modern methods in biological research.
Tang D, Li ZY, Gijsen F, Giddens DP. Cardiovascular diseases and vulnerable plaques: data, modeling, predictions and clinical applications. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2015;14(Suppl 1):S1.
Group I. Imaging
Zhu J, Bornstedt A, Merkle N, Liu N, Rottbauer W, Ma G, Rasche V. T2-prepared segmented 3D-Gradient-Echo for fast T2-weighted high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of the carotid artery wall at 3T: a feasibility study. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0276-9.
Xing R, Wilde DD, McCann G, Ridwan Y, Schrauwen JT, van der Steen AF, Gijsen FJ, Heiden KV. Contrast-enhanced micro-CT imaging in murine carotid arteries: a new protocol for computing wall shear stress. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0270-2.
Li B, Jiao Y, Fu C, Xie B, Ma G, Teng GJ, Yao YY. Contralateral artery enlargement predicts carotid plaque progression based on machine learning algorithm models in ApoE-/- mice. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0265-z.
Tian Z, Nan Q, Nie XH, Dong D, Wang RR. The comparison of lesion outline and temperature field determined by different ways in atrial radiofrequency ablation. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0251-5.
Group II. Arteries
Nayanajith H, Gallage P, Saha SC, Sauret E, Flower R, Senadeera W, Gu YT. SPH-DEM approach to numerically simulate the deformation of three-dimensional RBCs in non-uniform capillaries. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0256-0.
Gu ZY, Pan YL, Qiao AK, Hu XJ, Dong NG, Li XF, Liu YL, Shang DG. Numerical simulation of closure performance for neo-aortic valve for arterial switch operation. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0264-0.
Zhang Q, Gao B, Chang Y. The study on hemodynamic effect of series type LVAD on aortic blood flow pattern: a primary numerical study. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0252-4.
Yue S, Chang Y, Zhu MJ, Qiao HY, Liu YM. The risk of Stanford Type-A aortic dissection with different tear size and location: a numerical study. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0258-y.
Chen Q, Wang Y, Li ZY. Re-examination of the mechanical anisotropy of porcine thoracic aorta by uniaxial tensile tests. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0279-6.
Group III. Aneurysm
Xiong Y, Wang XH, Jiang WT, Tian XB, Wang QY, Fan YB, Chen Y. Hemodynamics study of a multilayer stent for treatment of aneurysms. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0248-0.
Li J, Tian XP, Wang ZZ, Xiong J, Fan YB, Deng XY, Sun AQ, Liu X. Influence of endoleak positions on the pressure shielding ability of stent-graft after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0249-z.
Zhang QQ, Meng ZY, Zhang Y, Yao K, Liu J, Zhang YS, Jing LK. Yang Xj, Paliwal N, Meng H, Wang SZ, Phantom-based experimental validation of fast virtual deployment of self-expandable stents for cerebral aneurysms. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0250-6.
Xu LJ, Liu H. Exploring potential association between flow instability and rupture in patients with matched-pairs of ruptured-unruptured intracranial aneurysms. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0277-8.
Group IV. Heart and Lung
Liao S, Simpson B, Neidlin M, Kaufmann TA, Li ZY, Woodruff MA, Gregory SD. Numerical prediction of thrombus risk in an anatomically dilated left ventricle: the effect of inflow cannula designs. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0262-2.
Yu S, Wang JZ, Sun XZ, Liu YX. Numerical study of the effects of bronchial structural abnormalities on respiratory flow distribution. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0278-7.
Zhang TT, Gao B, Zhou ZX, Chang Y. The movement and deposition of PM2.5 in the upper respiratory tract for the patients with heart failure: an elementary CFD study. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0281-z.
Group V. Device and Treatment
Li HX, Gu JF, Wang MJ, Zhao DY, Li Z, Qiao AK, Zhu B. Multi-objective optimization of coronary stent using kriging surrogate model. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0268-9.
Zhang MZ, Anzai H, Chopard B, Ohta M. Towards the patient-specific design of flow diverters made from helix-like wires: an optimization study. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0257-z.
Bo XF, Wang WD, Chen Z, Liu ZC. Compression-distraction reduction surgical verification and optimization to treat the basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation: a finite element analysis. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0246-2.
Gu KY, Gao B, Chang Y, Zeng Y. The effect of captopril on the performance of the control strategies of BJUT-II VAD. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0247-1.
Mao BY, Wang WX, Zhao Z, Zhao X, Li LL, Zhang HX, Liu YJ. On the relationship between competitive flow and FFT analysis of the flow waves in the left internal mammary artery graft in the process of CABG. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0260-4.
Wang WX, Mao BY, Wang HR, Geng XY, Zhao X, Zhang HX, Xie JS, Zhao Z, Lian B, Liu YJ. Hemodynamic analysis of sequential graft from right coronary system to left coronary system. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0259-x.
Song XR, Li GY, Qiao AK, Chen ZH. Association of simultaneously measured four-limb blood pressures with cardiovascular function: a cross-sectional study. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0266-y.
Group VI. Micro-scale studies
Lü DY, Li Z, Gao YX, Luo CH, Zhang F, Zheng L, Wang JW, Sun SJ, Long M. & #x03B2;1 integrin signaling in asymmetric migration of keratinocytes under mechanical stretch in a co-cultured wound repair model. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0263-1.
Huang B, Ling YC, Fang Y, Wu JH. Mechanical regulation of calcium signaling of HL-60 on P-selectin under flow. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0271-1.
Liu WP, Liu GJ, Zhou HY, Fang X, Fang Y, Wu JH. Computer prediction of paratope on antithrombotic antibody 10B12 and epitope on platelet glycoprotein VI via molecular dynamics simulation. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0272-0.
Wang YX, Xiang C, Liu B, Zhu Y, Luan Y, Liu ST, Qin KR. A multi-component parallel-plate flow chamber system for studying the effect of exercise-induced wall shear stress on endothelial cells. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0273-z.
Group VII. Other
Wu XG, Wang NN, Wang ZW, Yu WL, Wang YQ, Guo Y, Chen WY. Mathematically modeling fluid flow and fluid shear stress in the canaliculi of a loaded osteon. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0267-x.
Wang XN, Liu BB, Xie L, Yu XL, Li MJ, Zhang JB. Cerebral and neural regulation of cardiovascular activity during mental stress. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0255-1.
Sun J, Yan SH, Jiang Y, Wong DW, Zhang M, Zeng JZ, Zhang K. Finite element analysis of the valgus knee joint of an obese child. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0253-3.
Zhang J, Ren L, Mei X, Zheng W, Liu ZC. Microstructure visualization of conventional outflow pathway and finite element modeling of trabecular meshwork. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0254-2.
Guo HM, Gao ZP, Chen WY. The biomechanical significance of pulley on binocular vision. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0280-0.
Wang WJ, Qian XQ, Song HF, Zhang MD, Liu ZC. Fluid and structure coupling analysis of the interaction between aqueous humor and iris. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0261-3.
Cai Y, Zhang J, Li ZY. Multi-scale mathematical modelling of tumour growth and microenvironments in anti-angiogenic therapy. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0275-x.
Yuan WX, Liu HB, Gao FS, Wang YX, Qin KR. Effects of 8-week swimming training on carotid arterial stiffness and hemodynamics in young overweight adults. BioMed Eng OnLine. 2016. doi:10.1186/s12938-016-0274-y.
Both authors actively contributed to the research and the writing of the manuscript. DT and ZYL were guest editors for the special issue. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Organizing and early effort of this special issue was supported in part by NIH/NIBIB 1R13 EB018724. Sponsorship information: Publication of this supplement has not been supported by sponsorship. Information about the source of funding for publication charges can be found in the individual articles. The peer review process was overseen by the Supplement Editors in accordance with BioMed Central’s peer review guidelines for supplements. The Supplement Editors declare that they have no competing interests.
Other than the grants listed in the acknowledgement section, the authors declare that they have no other competing interests.
About this supplement
This article has been published as part of BioMedical Engineering OnLine Volume 15 Supplement 2, 2016. Computational and experimental methods for biological research: cardiovascular diseases and beyond. The full contents of the supplement are available online http://biomedical-engineering-online.biomedcentral.com/articles/supplements/volume-15-supplement-2.
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Tang, D., Li, ZY. Preface: Computational and experimental methods for biological research: cardiovascular diseases and beyond. BioMed Eng OnLine 15 (Suppl 2), 157 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12938-016-0269-8