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Table 1 Current personalisation possibilities in 3D cardiac computational modelling

From: Three-dimensional cardiac computational modelling: methods, features and applications

Features Technique Invasiveness
Anatomy Segmentation of in-vivo image Non-invasive
Fibre orientation Image-based estimation (in-vivo DTI) Non-invasive
Cardiac conduction system PMJs from EAMs Invasive
Pathology (Structural remodelling) Anatomical variations Clinical image-based Non-invasive
Localised fibrosis Image-based (e.g. DE-MRI) Non-invasive
EAMs Invasive
Diffuse fibrosis Image-based (T1 mapping MRI) Non-invasive
Electrophysiology Action potential NO  
Heterogeneity NO  
Electrical remodelling NO  
Genetic mutations NO  
Conduction velocities Global: ECG Non-invasive
Local: EAMs Invasive
APD restitution curve EAMs Invasive
Extracellular ion concentrations Blood test (electrolyte concentrations) (time-variant) Invasive
Activation pattern ECG or BSPM Non-invasive
EAMs Invasive
Cardiac mechanics Biomechanical model Dynamic image-based Non-invasive
Material properties NO  
Boundary conditions Dynamic image-based Non-invasive
  1. This table shows the techniques that can be currently used to personalise the different features and components of a 3D cardiac computational model aimed at biophysical simulation, specifying whether the technique is invasive or non-invasive.