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Table 1 ROMs of intact FE model and implanted FE models with and without fusion for all motion segments

From: Influence of posterior pedicle screw fixation at L4–L5 level on biomechanics of the lumbar spine with and without fusion: a finite element method

Motion Model L1–L2 (Deg) L2–L3 (Deg) L3–L4 (Deg) L4–L5 (Deg) Mom. (Nm) L1–L5 stiffness (Nm/Deg)
Flexion INT 4.08 (100%) 3.15 (100%) 4.97 (100%) 4.90 (100%) 7.5 (100%) 0.44 (100%)
IMP 4.93 (121%) 3.82 (121%) 5.55 (112%) 2.86 (58%) 10.3 (137%) 0.60 (136%)
IMPF 5.46 (134%) 4.26 (135%) 6.58 (132%) 0.94 (19%) 12.3 (164%) 0.71 (161%)
Extension INT 2.61 (100%) 2.06 (100%) 2.58 (100%) 3.73 (100%) 7.5 (100%) 0.68 (100%)
IMP 3.08 (118%) 2.44 (118%) 3.32 (129%) 2.22 (60%) 9.0 (120%) 0.81 (119%)
IMPF 3.47 (133%) 2.76 (134%) 4.00 (155%) 0.87 (23%) 10.3 (137%) 0.93 (137%)
Lateral bending INT 4.36 (100%) 2.85 (100%) 5.16 (100%) 5.46 (100%) 7.5 (100%) 0.42 (100%)
IMP 5.27 (121%) 3.54 (124%) 6.23 (121%) 2.98 (55%) 9.5 (127%) 0.53 (126%)
IMPF 5.84 (134%) 3.97 (139%) 6.95 (135%) 1.04 (19%) 10.8 (144%) 0.61 (145%)
Axial rotation INT 2.10 (100%) 1.74 (100%) 2.08 (100%) 2.24 (100%) 7.5 (100%) 0.92 (100%)
IMP 2.04 (97%) 1.69 (97%) 2.31 (111%) 2.14 (96%) 7.2 (96%) 0.88 (96%)
IMPF 2.69 (128%) 2.26 (130%) 3.06 (147%) 0.30 (13%) 10.0 (133%) 1.20 (130%)
  1. The percentages indicate the ROMs of all models normalized by the ROM of INT