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Table 2 Paediatric rehabilitation robots’ requirements and examples

From: Robotic devices for paediatric rehabilitation: a review of design features

Requirement Definition Example
Target group Range of ages and problem of the users ChARMin covered an age range from 5–18 years old [99]
Mechanical functionality The device performance, including the controlling level of assistance, the functional workspace, smoothness of movement and robustness McDaid designed a gait trainer that allows children to stretch their legs through the entire ROM and support body weight up to 80kg [40]
Weight Total unsupported or unpowered mass of the device in relation to the user’s body weight Lerner developed a Bowden cable structure for an ankle exoskeleton with a weight of 1.85 kg and placed 65% of the total mass above the waist to minimise the metabolic cost of walking due to the device's weight [73]
Therapeutic benefit The type of exercise that the rehabilitation system should promote and how this will improve the user quality of life The paediatric Anklebot provided intensive task-specific sensorimotor therapy to the ankle of children with motor disabilities to promote motor learning [75]
Safety The potential for the device to harm its user IOTA device included a security stop button that immediately halts the servo motors [175]
Comfort The user can use the device without physical pain or discomfort The P-LEG robot used 3D printed braces based on 3D scans of the child’s legs to improve the child's comfort [71]
Reliability The consistency of the device operation in normal operating conditions Laubscher designed a gait guidance controller to guide the motion of the patient's legs to follow healthy gait patterns to avoid unnatural gait patterns [176]
Operability The device is easy to control and adaptable to changes in the user’s ability and sizes ATLAS exoskeleton used a slide and tubular regulation size system to adapt to the fast growth of the patients at all stages [177]
Product appeal User satisfaction with the design, like fit, appearance, and sound of the device One of the main requirements for PEXO was an appealing design, so the kidPexo version resembles a crocodile [26]
Quality of construction Typical use and care should cause no damage, distortion, or hinder the expected useful lifetime of the device PEXO device did not have electronics in the hand module, making the device water and dustproof [26]
Social acceptability Matches user needs for discretion or attention to avoid stigmatisation Weightman selected the handgrip of his robot through a questionnaire with different aspects like shape, style, feel, and colour [69]
Motivation Encompass any aspect of the device considered to motivate the child ChARMin used an Audio-visual interface with various game-based virtual reality scenarios to motivate the child for active participation [57]
Cost The financial burden of the initial purchase and ongoing costs of the device Volpini developed a low-cost robotic gait trainer to be used in developing countries [87]
Easy to maintain/repair The ease of keeping the device fully operational, including when damaged P-Legs' brace 3D print fabrication method made it easy to get new braces as the children grow [71]
Portability The possibility of the device to be transported between locations Cleary developed a smaller version of Pedbot that can be used at home [153]