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Table 3 Comparison of top-down and bottom-up synthesis approaches of MXene

From: MXene in the lens of biomedical engineering: synthesis, applications and future outlook

  Top-down approach Bottom-up approach Refs.
Precursor Initiate from MAX phase of 3D structure Initiate from atom to crystal growth of MXene film [10, 36]
Method Involves with chemical etchants such as HF acid Apply chemical vapour deposition or salt-templating method or plasma-enhanced deposition [36,37,38]
Synthesis condition Pressure-less synthesis Control gas flow as carbon source [10, 37]
Temperature Require room or low temperature for synthesis Require high temperature of ~ 1000 °C for synthesis [36]
Morphology Large irregular MXene sheet could be produced with a lateral size of a few hundred nanometers and thin sheets with a thickness between 10 and 200 nm Produce defect-free and highly crystalline thin film of multilayers with a lateral size of between 10 and 100 μm [22, 36]
Surface properties Functionalized –OH and –O after synthesis Lack of functional groups after synthesis [3, 37]