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Table 2 Comparison of the three types of the palate in different aspects

From: The technology of tongue and hard palate contact detection: a review

Factor consideration Kay palatometer system Reading system CompleteSpeech palatometer Articulate system
Picture Not available Not available
Number of contact 96 (copper gold plated electrode) 62 (thin silver discs electrode) 124 (gold plate electrode) 62 (silver plating electrode)
Diameter of contact 1-mm-diameter gold toroids
Gold also is a good conductor and less susceptible to tarnish
1.4-mm-diameter silver discs
Silver is a good conductor, but it is known to tarnish over extended periods of time when exposed to sulphides, which can be found in the air and saliva
Not mentioned 1.5-mm-diameter through the palate
Using silver plating of circuit contacts and less toxic chemical of processing
Thickness of palate 1 mm 1.5–2.5 mm ~ 0.5 mm ~ 1 mm over the teeth
Coverage area Moulded to fit the speaker’s hard palate and to cover the external border of the upper teeth
Goes further back in the mouth toward the soft palate (up to the back of the molars), particularly in the mid-sagittal plane
Covers only the hard palate and stops at the gingival border Coverage on the velar and dental region More coverage on velar and dental regions
The electrode position at the velar region is almost similar to Kay palate coverage, 7–12 mm behind the border of the hard and soft mid-sagittal
Price and cost (see [3, 48], pricing according to manufacturer inquiry) High cost by the usage of gold and a greater number of contacts
USD 400
Estimated cost USD 570 for traditional Reading palate [43] USD 300 not including dental impression cost USD 320 for a new fully compatible Articulate Palate [43]
Electrode placement Location of electrode Number of contact assign Location of electrode Number of contact assign Location of electrode Number of contact assign Location of electrode Number of contact assign
Dental region 8 Dental region 0 Dental region 12 Dental region 6
Alveolar region 11 Alveolar region 14 Alveolar region 24 Alveolar region 8
Post-alveolar 16 Post-alveolar 16 Post-alveolar 1414 Post-alveolar 16
Palatal region 47 Palatal region 24 Palatal region 42 Palatal region Palatal region 16
Velar region 14 Velar region 8 Velar region 32 Velar region 16
Method of manufacturing 1. A dentist prepares the stone cast of the user by obtaining a plaster dental impression of the upper jaw
2. 96 gold contacts are embedded between the top and base layer of the acrylic vacuum and cover the teeth area
3. Each contact is soldered with copper wire, grouped at the left and right side and exiting behind the rear molars
4. Using a flexible tube, the wires are sealed and soldered to pin connector plug
1. Almost similar to Kay Palatometer manufacturing, a dentist is required to take an impression of the upper jaw, and a plaster model is prepared based on the impression
2. The electrode position is marked on the surface of the plaster model with an indelible pencil
3. 62 of silver contact are then embedded in acrylic resin
4. Stainless steel Adams clasps clip is applied to ensure the palate retains in place during the treatment
5. Fine copper wires are soldered on each of the contacts, grouped and exiting behind the rear molar as similar to Kay Palatometer
6. Using a flexible tube, the wires are sealed and soldered to a double-sided edge connector card
1. A dental impression is required or scanning a 3D image of the mouth/upper palate also available, which then access to a 3D printer to prepare the dental mould
2. The SmartPalate is then created based upon the dental mould and thermoformed using soft plastic
3. A flexible printed circuit is attached after cutting and conforming the shape and fit the user
4. The flexible circuit is connecting to processing and display equipment by leads containing electrical connectors
1. Silver-loaded epoxy compound bonded onto each of silver plate contact
2. The circuit then sealed between two layers of acrylic
3. Wires exit the mouth at the front teeth
Time manufacturing Not mentioned Palate manufacture generally takes between 12 and 16 h but can take longer if wires are accidentally damaged while the palate surface is polished Completed within 5 business days from the date the stone model was received Take approximately 3–4 h
Adjustable fit Thermoformed palate covers the teeth Using acrylic resin and Adams clasps Thermoformed palate covers the teeth Compounds of wax and ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) is used to fit into the mouth
The wax and EVA are softened when placed in hot water. After the user wears the palate, it flows between the teeth and solidifies