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Table 2 Sway measures (RMS, MV, f95, ∆tc) and model parameters (KP, KD, KI, Kn, τd) of patients with PD, at pre-, week 2, week 4, and post-training, in R-tasks (RO: stance on rigid surface with eyes open, and RC: stance on rigid surface with eyes closed)

From: Postural control learning dynamics in Parkinson’s disease: early improvement with plateau in stability, and continuous progression in flexibility and mobility

TaskPD patients (n = 20)ANOVA
P value
(F value)
Effect sizeTukey P value for post-hoc comparisons
Sway measures/model parametersPre (T1)Week 2 (T2)Week 4 (T3)Post (T4)T1–T2T1–T3T1–T4T2–T3T2–T4T3–T4
RO
 RMS (mm)5.99 ± 1.807.21 ± 2.906.78 ± 2.386.56 ± 1.980.186 (1.66)0.0800.3460.5620.3810.8420.7160.970
 MV (mm/s)10.04 ± 3.2510.22 ± s3.7511.20 ± 3.4112.31 ± 4.300.010 (4.13)0.1790.9940.4680.0520.2660.0190.541
 f95 (Hz)1.14 ± 0.391.12 ± 0.351.26 ± 0.421.37 ± 0.580.106 (2.13)0.1010.9980.7120.2430.3730.2600.792
 ∆tc (s)1.59 ± 0.541.75 ± 0.571.70 ± 0.411.76 ± 0.490.531 (0.742)0.0380.6860.8210.4520.9831.0000.935
 KP (N.m/deg)16.43 ± 3.7816.84 ± 3.6516.96 ± 3.5118.42 ± 4.880.062 (2.58)0.1200.9580.7500.1920.9980.0790.383
 KD (N.m.s/deg)5.87 ± 1.845.22 ± 1.935.47 ± 1.545.94 ± 2.200.370 (1.07)0.0530.3090.8021.0000.9310.3720.788
 KI (N.m/deg/s)1.46 ± 0.821.09 ± 0.741.56 ± 0.651.31 ± 0.760.125 (2.00)0.0950.1920.9710.9160.1870.6900.436
 Kn446.9 ± 215462.3 ± 214543.3 ± 211568.9 ± 197*0.022 (3.48)0.1550.9890.2780.0360.1320.0850.956
 τd (ms)135.3 ± 33.0115.7 ± 44.0117.1 ± 28.6109.3 ± 28.50.059 (2.63)0.1220.3390.2940.0580.9990.9140.768
RC
 RMS (mm)6.64 ± 2.117.13 ± 3.097.23 ± 2.426.63 ± 2.100.463 (0.868)0.0440.8270.4281.0000.9980.8500.201
 MV (mm/s)11.94 ± 5.3711.73 ± 5.3713.81 ± 5.0814.92 ± 6.12*0.034 (3.09)0.1400.9990.1090.0470.3600.2160.725
 f95 (Hz)1.37 ± 0.511.47 ± 0.531.56 ± 0.521.74 ± 0.700.085 (2.31)0.1090.8020.4720.2150.9030.3890.599
 ∆tc (s)1.51 ± 0.591.22 ± 0.371.23 ± 0.351.34 ± 0.470.093 (2.24)0.1050.1800.2460.6760.9980.7800.637
 KP (N.m/deg)19.64 ± 6.5718.91 ± 4.6219.49 ± 5.9121.13 ± 5.530.148 (1.85)0.0890.8740.9990.3540.9140.0610.474
 KD (N.m.s/deg)6.06 ± 2.265.84 ± 1.286.45 ± 1.726.69 ± 2.120.110 (2.10)0.1000.9580.6370.4630.2140.1990.865
 KI (N.m/deg/s)1.83 ± 1.371.60 ± 0.871.66 ± 0.942.05 ± 1.090.264 (1.36)0.0670.8310.9340.8660.9910.1660.199
 Kn547.1 ± 314568.8 ± 303652.1 ± 321718.0 ± 3440.035 (3.07)0.1391.0000.5750.1200.2380.0710.486
 τd (ms)121.9 ± 40.4129.8 ± 40.3127.6 ± 38.1117.0 ± 41.10.428 (0.939)0.0470.8760.9070.9290.9930.4560.290
  1. Values are reported as mean ± standard deviation. Significant P values are in italics
  2. T1 to T4 refer to pre-, week 2, week 4, and post-training, respectively
  3. * Significantly different from pre-training (P < 0.05); significantly different from week 2 (P < 0.05)