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Table 1 Clinical outcomes of patients with PD at pre-, mid-, and post-training

From: Postural control learning dynamics in Parkinson’s disease: early improvement with plateau in stability, and continuous progression in flexibility and mobility

Clinical measurePD patients (n = 20)ANOVA
P value
(F value)
Effect sizeTukey P value for post-hoc comparisonsChange pattern
Pre-trainingMid-trainingPost-trainingPre to midMid to postPre to post
Functional balance
 Functional reach test (cm)23.5 ± 7.932.8 ± 6.7*37.6 ± 6.1*< 0.0001 (43.1)0.694<0.0001<0.0005<0.0001Continuous
 Step test (taps in 15 s)13.2 ± 3.515.9 ± 4.0*17.3 ± 3.6*< 0.0001 (23.9)0.557<0.00010.063<0.0001Saturation
 Tinetti balance score14.7 ± 1.515.6 ± 0.9*15.9 ± 0.2*< 0.0005 (9.44)0.3320.0330.3200.011Saturation
 Tandem stancea—EO (s)93.0 ± 27.6113.7 ± 12.6*118.3 ± 5.7*< 0.0001 (14.5)0.4330.0030.1410.002Saturation
 Tandem stancea—EC (s)35.4 ± 26.854.8 ± 29.1*72.7 ± 30.2*< 0.0001 (23.2)0.5490.0040.012< 0.0001Continuous
Functional mobility
 TUG (s)9.1 ± 2.77.4 ± 1.6*6.5 ± 1.4*< 0.0001 (23.5)0.5530.00070.0040.0001Continuous
 6MWT (m)226.0 ± 67254.1 ± 61*305.5 ± 62*< 0.0001 (19.8)0.5100.0400.0020.0001Continuous
 Tinetti gait score10.5 ± 1.411.5 ± 0.6*11.8 ± 0.4*< 0.0001 (13.8)0.4220.0090.0050.001Continuous
  1. Values are reported as mean ± standard deviation
  2. EO, eyes open; EC, eyes closed; TUG, Timed Up and Go test; 6MWT, Six-minute walk test; FRT, Functional reach test; Continuous, continuously improving with significant difference between all time points; Saturation, improvements with saturation at the end—i.e., significant change in the first half of the training (from pre- to mid-training), but then non-significant from mid- to post-training points
  3. Post-hoc Tukey tests for pairwise comparisons between time points: *significantly different from pre-training (P < 0.05); significantly different from mid-training (P < 0.05)
  4. Significant P values are in italic
  5. aTimed tandem stance was performed with the right and left leg in the front position, and then the time of both legs was summed as one scale (with maximum score of 120 s, considering that the maximum time to complete each stance test was set to 60 s)