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Table 10 Impurities, agents to remove them and assumed reaction mechanisms

From: Processing of collagen based biomaterials and the resulting materials properties

Unwanted adsorptive Used agent Removal mechanism
Monovalent cations Acids (H+) Ion exchange
Divalent cations Acids (H+) Ion exchange
  Chelating agents Sequestration
Monovalent anions Alkaline; chloride Ion exchange
Saccharides Alkaline treatment Degradation
  Enzymes Degradation
Proteins Proteases Degradation
  Solvent Exchange
  Surfactants (Triton X 100; CHAPS) Exchange and dissolving
Lipophilic components Surfactants (SDS; Triton X 100) Dissolving
  Solvent Dissolving
Nucleic acids Nucleases Degradation
Endotoxines Peroxide, alkaline, acid Unknown