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Table 4 AEMG of agonist and antagonist required for lumbar activities during the four movements

From: Co-contraction characteristics of lumbar muscles in patients with lumbar disc herniation during different types of movement

Movement LDH (%MV) Healthy control (%MV)
Agonist Antagonist Difference Agonist Antagonist Difference
Forward bending 62.48 ± 8.32 33.78 ± 4.34 28.70** 69.45 ± 6.75 27.95 ± 3.90 41.50**
Backward bending 23.51 ± 4.45 70.67 ± 7.55 − 47.15** 28.46 ± 4.75 56.18 ± 6.30 − 27.72**
Left lateral flexion 39.59 ± 5.81 52.44 ± 6.75 − 12.84** 46.71 ± 6.16 43.20 ± 5.58 3.50*
Right lateral flexion 37.06 ± 5.88 50.37 ± 5.64 − 13.31** 47.64 ± 5.83 41.62 ± 4.68 6.02**
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation (SD), * significant level at 0.05; ** significant level at 0.01