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Table 2 Movement Visualisation (MV) Groups

From: Movement visualisation in virtual reality rehabilitation of the lower limb: a systematic review

MV Group N Description
Indirect MV 13 Body movements are not directly visualized in the virtual environment. Changes in context information represent indirectly the user’s movement
 Optical flow (N = 11): Motion of patterns or objects create a naturalistic illusion of movement in the virtual environment. Goal is usually navigation through a virtual scenario (e.g. supermarket)
 Active optical flow (N = 3): Motion of patterns or objects during movement in the virtual environment is manipulated with the purpose to influence the user’s behavior (e.g. acceleration of optical flow)
Abstract MV 11 The user’s movement is represented in a (non-anthropomorphic) computer graphic. Main goal relies on the correct execution of the task
 2D Exercise (N = 6): tasks performance in a two dimensional environment
 3D Exercise (N = 5): task performance in a three dimensional environment
Augmented reality (AR) MV 9 Visualisation of the user’s real body supplemented with virtual Performance Feedback and/or virtual Context Information (e.g. Sony Eye Toy, AR-glasses). This also includes Augmented Virtuality
Avatar MV 5 Real movements are represented through a virtual body (or body part)
 Realistic body (or body part) (N = 3): Representation visually and kinematically close to the real body
 Rough figure (N = 2): Simple body representation with some aspects of real appearance and movements (e.g. Mii avatar in Nintendo Wii)
 Mirrored body (or body part) (N = 0): Realistic body representation with mirrored visual and movement information
Tracking MV 4 Continuous adjustment of body movement with an external visual input (e.g. follow a given trajectory). Explicit goal is the correctness of the movement execution
Combined MV 1 Visualisation consists of more than one MV type (e.g. indirect MV on an augmented reality device)
No MV 2 Body movements are not represented in the virtual environment. Visualisation during rehabilitation training is exclusively based on Performance Feedback