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Table 1 Overview of included studies

From: Movement visualisation in virtual reality rehabilitation of the lower limb: a systematic review

Study Movement Visualisation Immersion Robotic device Motor function Sample population Sample size
Aiello [35] Indirect MV: OF Non No Gait T: MS
C: –
T: 10
C: –
Cikajlo [36] Indirect MV: OF Non No Balance T: Stroke
C: Stroke
T: 6
C: 22
Fung [37] Indirect MV: OF Semi No Gait T: Stroke
C: –
T: 2
C: –
Fung [38] Indirect MV: OF Semi No Gait, Balance T: Stroke
C: healthy
T: 9
C: 9
Kizony [39] Indirect MV: OF Semi No Gait T: Stroke
C: healthy
T: 12
C: 10
Park [40] Indirect MV: OF Semi No Gait T: PD
C: –
T: 3
C: –
Yang [41] Indirect MV: OF Semi/full No Gait T: Stroke
C: Stroke
T: 11
C: 9
Yang [42] Indirect MV: OF Non No Balance T: Stroke
C: Stroke
T: 7
C: 7
Bergmann [22] Indirect MV: OF Non/semi Yes (Lokomat) Gait T: Stroke
C: –
T: 1
C: –
Walker [43] Indirect MV: AOF Non/semi No Gait T: Stroke
C: –
T: 6
C: –
Lamontagne [31] Indirect MV: AOF Full No Gait Crossover:
(T) Stroke,
(C) healthy
Crossover:
(T) 12,
(C) 12
Lamontagne [44] Indirect MV: AOF Full No Gait Crossover:
(T) Stroke,
(C) healthy
Crossover:
(T) 10,
(C) 11
Slobounov [24] Indirect MV: AOF Semi No Balance T: healthy → TBI (within)
C: healthy
T: 10
C: 45
Betker [45] Abstract MV: 2D Non No Balance T: Ataxia, Stroke, TBI
C: –
T: 3
C: –
Geiger [46] Abstract MV: 2D Non No Balance T: Stroke
C: Stroke
T: 7
C: 6
Gil-Gomez [47] Abstract MV: 2D Non/semi No Balance T: Stroke, TBI, BCN
C: Stroke, TBI, BCN
T: 9
C: 8
Jobst [48] Abstract MV: 2D Non No Balance T: Ataxia
C1: Ataxia
C2: healthy
T: 36
C1: 36
C2: 10
Mercier [49] Abstract MV: 2D Non No Gait T: Stroke
C: –
T: 1
C: –
Forrester [50] Abstract MV: 2D Non Yes (Anklebot) Ankle T: Stroke
C: –
T: 8
C: –
Cho [17] Abstract MV: 3D
&
Avartar MV: Rough figure
Game No Balance T: Stroke
C: Stroke
T: 11
C: 11
Deutsch [51] Abstract MV: 3D Non Yes (Rutgers Ankle Rehabilitation System) Ankle Exp. 1 & 2:
T: Stroke
C: –
Exp.1: T: 1, C: –
Exp.2: T: 3, C: –
Deutsch [52] Abstract MV: 3D Non Yes (Rutgers Ankle Rehabilitation System) Ankle T: Stroke
C: –
T: 6
C: –
Mirleman [53, 54] Abstract MV: 3D Non Yes (Rutgers Ankle Rehabilitation System) Ankle T: Stroke
C: Stroke
T: 9
C: 9
Cattaneo [55] Tracking MV Non No Balance T: MS
C: –
T: 9
C: –
Deng [56] Tracking MV Non No Ankle T: Stroke
C: Stroke
T: 8
C: 8
Dunning [57] Tracking MV Non No Gait, Ankle T: Stroke
C: –
 T: 1
C: –
Durfee [58] Tracking MV Non No Ankle  T: Stroke
C: –
T: 20
C: –
McClanachan [59] Avartar MV: Rough figure Game No Gait, Balance Crossover: Stroke, TBI Crossover: 21
Brütsch [18] Avatar MV: Realistic body Non/semi Yes (Lokomat) Gait Crossover:
(T) BS-CP, TBI, MMC, SLE,
(C) healthy
Crossover:
(T) 10,
(C) 14
Schuler [19] Avatar MV: Realistic body Non/semi Yes (Lokomat) Gait Crossover:
(T) MS, CP, Hip dysplasia, Cerebral haemorrhage, Encephalopathy, Transverse myelitis,
(C) healthy
Crossover:
(T) 9,
(C) 8
Brütsch [60] Avatar MV: Realistic body Non/semi Yes (Lokomat) Gait Crossover:
(T) MS, CP, Hip dysplasia, Cerebral haemorrhage, Encephalopathy, symptomatic SCI,
(C) healthy
Crossover:
(T) 10,
(C) 8
Baram [25] AR MV AR No Gait T1: MS
T2: MS
T1: 10
T2: 11
Baram [61] AR MV AR No Gait T: MS
C: healthy
T: 16
C: 12
Kim [62] AR MV AR No Gait, Balance T: Stroke
C: Stroke
T: 12
C: 12
Palma [63] AR MV Game No Balance T: TBI
C: TBI
T: 7?
C: 7?
Sveistrup [64] AR MV AR No Balance T1: TBI
T2: TBI
C: TBI
?
Jaffe [65] AR MV AR No Gait T: Stroke
C: Stroke
T: 10
C: 10
Thornton [66] AR MV AR No Balance T: TBI
C: TBI
T: 15
C: 12
Griffin [20] AR MV AR No Gait T: PD (within) T: 26
Ferrarin [21] AR MV
&
Combined MV: AR + Abstract (2D)
AR No Gait T: PD (within)
C: healthy (within)
T: 3
C: 3
Walker [67] No MV Non No Balance T: Stroke
C1: Stroke
C2: Stroke
T: 16
C1: 16
C2: 14
Banz [68] No MV Non Yes (Lokomat) Gait Crossover: iSCI Crossover: 12
  1. AR augmented reality, OF optical flow, AOF active optical flow, non non-immersive, semi semi-immersive, full full-immersive, game commercial game, Ankle ankle movement training, T treatment group, C control group, MS multiple sclerosis, (BS-)CP bilateral spastic cerebral palsy, TBI traumatic brain injury, BCN Benign cerebral neoplasm, (i) SCI (incomplete) spinal cord injury, PD Parkinson’s disease, MMC meningomyelocele, SLE systemic lupus erythematodes, healthy no neurological disorder
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