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Table 2 Overview of different prostheses

From: Active lower limb prosthetics: a systematic review of design issues and solutions

Type Name of prosthesis, Institute, Country Year Reference
A/K Agonist–antagonist active knee prosthesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA 2008 [56]
A/K University of Sakarya, Adapazari, Turkey 2008 [55]
A/K Waterloo Active Prosthetic Knee, University of Waterloo, Canada 2008 [29]
A/K Hebei University of Technology, China 2010 [49]
A/K ETH Zurich, Switzerland 2011 [72]
A/K The University of Alabama, USA 2011 [73]
A/K Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, USA 2012 [53]
A/K University of Rhode Island, USA 2012 [74]
B/K Bionic ankle–foot prosthesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA 2006 [58]
B/K SPARKy, Arizona State University, USA 2008 [75]
B/K IPAM (intelligent Prosthesis using Artificial Muscles), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium 2008 [28]
B/K Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium 2009 [46]
B/K PANTOE 1, Peking University, China 2010 [57]
B/K Marquette University, Milwaukee, USA 2010 [76]
B/K Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa, Japan 2011 [77]
B/K AMP-foot 2.0, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium 2012 [78]
B/K Vanderbilt Transtibial Prosthesis, Vanderbilt University, USA 2013 [32]
A/K + B/K Vanderbilt Transfemoral Prosthesis, Vanderbilt University, USA 2009 [59]
A/K + B/K University of Brasília, Brasil 2009 [79]
A/K + B/K SmartLeg, University of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011 [34]
A/K + B/K Cyberleg alpha, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium 2013 [80]
  1. The prosthesis are classified as above-knee (A/K), below-knee (B/K) and combined knee-and-ankle prosthesis (A/K + B/K)