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Table 1 Summary of the published papers that simulate patient-specific LVs

From: Heart blood flow simulation: a perspective review

First author Year Geometry Imaging technique CFD methodb Phasec Validation resultsd CFD Solver
Conditiona Type Number of case studies
Normal Patient
Doost  [18] 2016 Normal 3D 1 MRI GP FCC N/A ANSYS-fluent
Su [19] 2016 Normal and PAH 3D 1 1 MRI GP FCC N/A ANSYS-fluent
Nguyen[20] 2015 Normal person and patients with diastolic dysfunction 3D 4 2 MRI GP FCC Blood flow pattern is qualitatively validated using echocardiography PIV In-house CFD solver
Muehlhausen [21] 2015 Normal 3D 1 MRI GP FCC N/A Coupled fluent, MpCCI, and Abaqus
Su [22] 2014 HCM 3D 1 1 MRI GP FCC N/A ANSYS-fluent 14
Su [23] 2014 Normal 2D 1 MRI GP FCC N/A ANSYS-fluent 14
Khalafvand [13] 2014 Before and after SVR and normal 3D 1 2 MRI GP FCC N/A ANSYS-fluent 12
Moosavi [2] 2014 Normal 3D 1 MRI GP FCC N/A ADINA v8.6
Seo [12] 2014 Normal 3D 1 CT scan GP FCC N/A N/A
Chnafa [14] 2014 Not specified 3D 1 MRI GP,LES FCC N/A YALES2BIO
Corsini [16] 2014 SV 3D 1 MRI Multi-scale FCC The flow obtained from the multi-scale analysis is validated using the clinical MR and echo-Doppler data Simnon
Vecchi [24] 2014 Normal and HLHS 3D 1 1 ECG GP FP N/A CHeart
Seo [25] 2013 Normal 3D 1 CT scan GP FCC N/A N/A
Mangual [7] 2013 DCM and Normal 3D 20 8 ECG IBM FCC N/A N/A
Vecchi [26] 2013 HLHS 3D 1 2 MRI GP FP Myocardial shape parameters is validated using dual phase MRI N/A
Nguyen [27] 2013 Normal 3D 1 MRI GP FCC N/A N/A
Le [28] 2013 Normal 3D 1 MRI IBM FP N/A FSI-CURVIB flow solver
Dahl [29] 2012 Normal 2D 1 Ultrasound GP FP N/A ANSYS-fluent 6.3.26
Lassila [30] 2012 Mild mitral regurgitation, MI and stroke 3D 1 MRI GP, Multi-scale FCC The flow rate and pressure obtained from the multi-scale analysis are validated using a closed loop hydraulic system Open-source LifeV code
Khalafvand [17] 2012 MI 2D 3 3 MRI GP FCC N/A ANSYS-CFX12
Khalafvand [31] 2012 Before and after SVR 3D 1 MRI GP FCC N/A ANSYS-CFX12
Le [32] 2012 Normal 3D 1 MRI IBM FCC N/A FSI-CURVIB flow solver
Mihalef [33] 2011 Normal 3D 1 CT scan GP FCC N/A N/A
Krittian [34] 2010 Normal 3D 1 MRI GP, coupled-FSI FCC The flow pattern predicted by CFD simulation is qualitatively validated using a circulatory system Coupled fluent, MpCCI, and Abaqus
Doenst [35] 2009 Before and after SVR 3D 1 MRI GP FCC The flow pattern predicted by CFD simulation is qualitatively validated using a circulatory system Coupled Fluent, MpCCI, and Abaqus
Schenkel [36] 2009 Normal 3D 1 MRI GP FCC The flow pattern predicted by CFD simulation is qualitatively validated using MRI velocity mapping Star-CD
Long [8] 2007 Normal 3D 6 MRI GP FCC The flow pattern predicted by CFD simulation is qualitatively validated using MRI velocity mapping ANSYS-CFX4
Liang [37] 2007 LHF and normal 3D 1 1 N/A GP, Multi-scale FCC The flow obtained from multi-scale analysis is validated using echo-Doppler data In-house C ++ code
Long [38] 2003 Normal 3D 1 MRI GP FCC N/A ANSYS-CFX4
Saber [39] 2001 Normal 3D 1 MRI GP FCC N/A STAR–CD
Saber [40] 2001 Normal 3D 1 MRI GP FCC N/A STAR–CD
  1. aCondition (DCM dilated cardiomyopathy, HCM hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, HLHS hypoplastic left heart syndrome, LHD left heart failure, MI myocardial infarction, PAH pulmonary arterial hypertension, SV single ventricle, SVR surgical ventricular reconstruction)
  2. bSolution method (GP geometry-prescribed, FSI fluid-structure interaction, IBM immersed boundary method, LES large eddy simulation)
  3. cPhase (FCC full cardiac cycle, filling phase)
  4. dValidation (PIV particle image velocimetry)