Temperature ranges and thawing rates of the interim thawing phase. Temperature ranges (a) and thawing rates (b) of the interim thawing phase over transmural depths for simulated ablation protocols. In (a) min(T
1F) marks the lines of the minimum temperatures during the first freezing phase and max(T
1T) marks the maximum temperatures during the interim thawing phase. The green line starting at -82.6°C defines the minimal temperature of the first freezing phase of all protocols with an initial freezing phase duration of 150 s.