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Table 2 Subjects' baseline characteristics and pupillometry parameters

From: Using dynamic pupillometry as a simple screening tool to detect autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes: a pilot study

Flash Parameters Healthy Volunteers Diabetic p values
    Without CAN With CAN p 1 p 2 p 3
  Number of subjects 16 15
(9 Type 1, 7 Type 2)
5
(2 Type 1, 3 Type 2)
- - -
  Gender (M/F) 9/7 14/1 4/1 - - -
  Age (years) 44 ± 13 51 ± 11 49 ± 4 ns ns ns
  Duration of diabetes (years) - 20 ± 11 20 ± 15 - - ns
  HbA1c (%) - 8.3 ± 1.1 10.2 ± 2.1 - - ns
  Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 120 ± 13 143 ± 20 145 ± 14 * * ns
  Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74 ± 6 78 ± 9 86 ± 8 ns * ns
10 th Ratio P/I preceding the 10th flash 0.33 ± 0.050 0.26 ± 0.024 0.28 ± 0.071 $ ns ns
  Latency to constriction (s) 0.35 ± 0.139 0.42 ± 0.126 0.44 ± 0.192 ns ns ns
  Latency to largest constriction (s) 0.68 ± 0.165 0.75 ± 0.133 0.68 ± 0.293 ns ns ns
  Ratio P/I at largest constriction 0.28 ± 0.049 0.24 ± 0.021 0.27 ± 0.076 * ns ns
25 th Ratio P/I preceding the 25th flash 0.32 ± 0.044 0.26 ± 0.022 0.30 ± 0.062 # ns ns
  Latency to constriction (s) 0.31 ± 0.125 0.36 ± 0.070 0.40 ± 0.155 ns ns ns
  Ratio P/I at largest constriction 0.27 ± 0.046 0.23 ± 0.020 0.25 ± 0.063 ns ns ns
  Latency to largest constriction (s) 0.69 ± 0.123 0.72 ± 0.054 0.79 ± 0.138 ns ns ns
  Ratio P/I of plateau 0.30 ± 0.041 0.25 ± 0.021 0.28 ± 0.060 $ ns ns
  Latency to plateau (s) 0.95 ± 0.168 0.95 ± 0.082 1.35 ± 0.583 ns # #
  Duration of constriction (s) 0.64 ± 0.237 0.59 ± 0.145 0.95 ± 0.675 ns ns ns
  1. [mean ± standard deviation] for the 25 flashes experiment. p 1 - Comparison between healthy volunteers and diabetic subjects without CAN. p 2 - Comparison between healthy volunteers and diabetic subjects with CAN. p 3 - Comparison between diabetic subjects without and with CAN. ns - not significant, * - p < 0.05, # - p < 0.01, and $ - p < 0.001.