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Table 4 The maximum, minimum and range of motions (in degrees) during each task

From: Development and performance of a new prosthesis system using ultrasonic sensor for wrist movements: a preliminary study

  Range of motion (ROM): biological hand   Range of motion (ROM): biomechatronics wrist prosthesis  
Type of motion Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 SD Average (ROM) Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 SD Average (ROM)
Flexion 21 21.5 20.3 21.9 20.2 0.74 20.6 ± 0.74 18.7 22 24 17 19.2 2.27 22.4 ± 2.27
Extension 55 57 57 56 57 0.89 57.3 ± 0.89 40 39 41 41 40 0.84 41 ± 0.84
Pronation 55 54.6 55.2 55.7 55.4 0.41 55.7 ± 0.41 50 49.8 50.1 50 50 0.11 50.4 ± 0.11
Supination 50.2 47.2 48.4 51.2 50.2 1.61 50 ± 1.61 89.7 88.7 88.9 89.1 89.8 0.49 89.3 ± 0.49