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Table 1 Mean (SD) of the ankle quasi-stiffness (N m kg−1rad−1 ) and R2 at four walking speeds

From: Quantitative analysis of human ankle characteristics at different gait phases and speeds for utilizing in ankle-foot prosthetic design

  Very slow speed Slow speed Normal speed Fast speed
KCP −0.63 (SD 0.93) −0.44 (SD 1.03) −0.20 (SD 0.90) −0.43 (SD 0.76)
KCD 4.57 (SD 0.77)a,b 4.47 (SD 0.62)a,b 5.47 (SD 0.76)a 5.80 (SD 1.05)b
KPP 4.78 (SD 0.62) 4.46 (SD 0.76) 4.58 (SD 0.71) 4.53 (SD 0.85)
R2 CP 0.75 (SD 0.35) 0.70 (SD 0.32) 0.58 (SD 0.29) 0.49 (SD 0.35)
R2 CD 0.96 (SD 0.04) 0.95 (SD 0.03) 0.91 (SD 0.06) 0.83 (SD 0.09)
R2 PP 0.95 (SD 0.03) 0.97 (SD 0.03) 0.98 (SD 0.01) 0.98 (SD 0.01)
  1. a,bshow the significant differences between KCD at fast and normal speeds and KCD at very slow and slow walking speeds (P < 0.05).