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Table 1 The comparison of the differences of the angle estimation results (degree)

From: An efficient framework for estimation of muscle fiber orientation using ultrasonography

ap-op** Proposed method RVHT* without enhancement RVHT with enhancement
Mean 0.11 0.18 0.13
Standard error 0.06 0.10 0.07
Median 0.13 0.07 0.08
Standard deviation 0.92 1.23 0.91
Kurtosis 4.03 5.81 13.45
Skewness -0.52 0.88 -1.57
Range 7.81 10.71 9.41
Minimum -4.89 -4.90 -5.46
Maximum 2.99 5.81 3.96
Sum 37.40 30.12 24.09
Count (total line detected) 314 168 305
False line detected 1 3 1
  1. *RVHT = revoting Hough transform.
  2. **ap and op stand for the results of the proposed methods and the mean of the results from two operators.