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Table 5 Results of robot assisted needle insertion experiment on kidney

From: An optical tracker based robot registration and servoing method for ultrasound guided percutaneous renal access

PATHs 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mean Std. Dev.
Position error of alignment (mm) 0.14 0.29 0.14 0.30 0.23 0.32 0.24 0.08
Direction error of alignment (E-4 rad) 4.88 6.08 6.28 6.00 8.01 9.44 6.78 1.65
Position error of insertion (mm) 2.35 2.10 2.34 2.10 1.89 2.11 2.15 0.17
Operation time(s) 84 79 81 77 75 80 79.33 3.14