Skip to main content

Table 6 Typical applications of 0D model

From: Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System

Application Model feature Examples
Analysis of the systemic arterial flow characteristics Only the arterial network is modelled Characteristics of the three- and four-element Windkessel models [13, 15, 16, 43, 114, 167, 169, 170];
Advantages and disadvantages of using the three element RCR model as aortic input impedance [14];
Comparison of different configurations of three element and four element models as the embryonic aortic impedance [110];
Investigation of aortic input impedance in infants and children by curve fitting to two, three and four element Windkessel models [17];
Study of the linear and nonlinear formulations of the three element Windkessel model by considering the pressure-dependent capacitance effect in the arterial network [89, 90, 92];
Two port analysis to extend the Windkessel models by considering the venous side flow pulsations in the systemic loop [19, 20];
Ventricular-systemic arterial coupling [171].
Hemodynamic response in the native cardiovascular system under various healthy and diseased conditions Complete description of the native cardiovascular system Cardiovascular response in normal healthy subjects [31];
Study of the ventricular interaction effect [32].
Modelling the dysfunction in regional stunned myocardium of the left ventricular [69];
Modelling of cardiac muscles in the study of mechanics and energetics of fibrillating ventricle [49];
Study of changes in pulmonary venous pressure after the onset of left ventricular dysfunction [30].
Hemodynamic changes under various surgical and therapeutical interventions. The native cardiovascular system was partly changed. Circulation dynamics in the presence of the bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis in children with a uni-ventricular heart [50];
Rest and exercise hemodynamics in patients with total cavopulmonary connection [172];
Modelling the hemodynamic characteristics in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome after the palliative Norwood operation [51];
Study of the cardiovascular response in patients with right ventricular bypass and uni-ventricular circulation support [173];
Modelled the cardiovascular control adaptations in chronic renal failure patients [166];
Modelling of the hemodynamic response to hemodialysis induced hypovolemia [54].
Modelling of the cardio-pulmonary response under step-leap respiration exercise for the treatment of patients with Cor Pulmonale [84].
Ventricular assist device support for heart failure The native cardiovascular system was in heart failure condition, and a VAD model is coupled. Studies of cardiovascular response in the heart failure condition supported with various types of VADs [70, 85, 99, 174178];
Studies of cardiovascular response in the heart failure condition supported with intra-aortic balloon pumps [48];
Comparison of the assistance action of different types of VAD and VAD motion profiles [179];
Study of the effect of the inlet and outlet cannulation sites for connecting the VADs to the native cardiovascular system [180];
Study of the physiological control of pulsatility gradient in rotary blood pump [33, 181].
Study of cardiovascular response under neuro-regulation The native cardiovascular system was coupled with the models for the nervous system Simulate the cardiovascular responses under neuro-regulation in various conditions of isocapnic hypoxia [41, 76], hemorrhage [40], hypercapnia and hypocapnic hypoxia [77], carotid occlusion [27];
Simulation of cardiopulmonary response in Valsalva manoeuvre [35];
Simulation of circulation system response to acceleration stress [78];
Simulation of the cardiovascular response to orthostatic stress [22].
Study of special and local circulation loops in the cardiovascular system. Only the local circulation loop was modelled, and arterial pressure or flow-rate was applied as upstream boundary condition. Simulation of human foetal cardiovascular system [23];
Studies of cerebral auto-regulation effect [100, 103], cerebral vasospasm [80], acute brain damage [102], and cerebral hemodynamics during arterial and CO2 pressure change [101];
Modelling of coronary local circulation loop [104];
Study of dependence of intra-myocardial pressure and coronary flow on ventricular loading and contractility [52, 93];
Study of venous valves in pressure shielding in the lower extremity [87];
Simulation of venous circulation in lower extremities [37].
As boundary condition in multi-scale simulation of cardiovascular dynamics The 0D circulation system model was coupled with the distributed parameter models (1D, 2D or 3D). Multi-scale simulation of the cardiovascular dynamics [147, 151, 153, 159, 160].