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Table 2 Results assessment of performance and functional mobility

From: Evaluation of an articulated passive ankle–foot prosthesis

    Time (s) Speed (m s−1) Heart rate (bpm) Oxygen consumption [ml · (kg · min)−1] VAS comfort VAS fatigue RPE
L-test TTA Current 18.38 ± 3.47 / 102 ± 12 / 77 ± 25 18 ± 21 9 ± 2
TD 19.66 ± 3.71 / 100 ± 13 / 74 ± 24 21 ± 23 9 ± 2
p-value 0.005 / 0.313 / 0.401 0.429 0.441
TFA Current 24.62 ± 5.80 / 98 ± 13 / 79 ± 18 30 ± 30 9 ± 2
TD 25.81 ± 7.72 / 101 ± 12 / 80 ± 14 26 ± 28 9 ± 2
p-value 0.200 / 0.068 / 0.439 0.414 0.323
Stair climbing TTA Current   60 ± 16* 141 ± 14 24.1 ± 6.5 63 ± 18 58 ± 24 14 ± 2
TD   59 ± 17* 140 ± 14 23.5 ± 6.1 65 ± 20 54 ± 22 13 ± 2
p-value   0.401 0.488 0.401 0.401 0.401 0.330
TFA Current / / / / / / /
TD / / / / / / /
p-value / / / / / / /
Slope walking TTA Current / 3.2 ± 0.9 122 ± 16 15.8 ± 4.4 68 ± 27 36 ± 20 12 ± 2
TD / 3.2 ± 0.8 123 ± 14 16.5 ± 5.1 75 ± 21 28 ± 18 11 ± 2
p-value / 0.401 0.412 0.401 0.401 0.084 0.401
TFA Current / 2.8 ± 0.9 111 ± 15 14.6 ± 2.9 71 ± 21 39 ± 30 10 ± 3
TD / 3.0 ± 1.2 115 ± 15 15.0 ± 4.3 85 ± 12 31 ± 29 10 ± 3
p-value / 0.170 0.206 0.349 0.068 0.170 0.448
6MWT TTA Current / SS: 3.5 ± 0.9
75% SS: 2.6 ± 0.7
125% SS: 4.4 ± 1.1
SS: 108 ± 15
75% SS: 104 ± 14
125% SS: 113 ± 17
SS: 11.8 ± 1.8
75% SS: 10.6 ± 2.0
125% SS: 13.4 ± 3.3
71 ± 26 32 ± 22 SS: 10 ± 2
75% SS: 9 ± 3
125% SS: 11 ± 2
TD / SS: 3.3 ± 0.7
75% SS: 2.5 ± 0.5
125% SS: 4.2 ± 0.8
SS: 109 ± 14
75% SS: 105 ± 16
125% SS: 111 ± 15
SS: 12.0 ± 2.5
75% SS: 11.1 ± 2.8
125% SS: 13.6 ± 3.4
75 ± 20 35 ± 24 SS: 10 ± 2
75% SS: 9 ± 3
125% SS: 11 ± 2
p-value / SS: 0.401
75% SS: 0.401
125% SS: 0.401
SS: 0.401
75% SS: 0.401
125% SS: 0.495
SS: 0.401
75% SS: 0.401
125% SS: 0.401
0.401 0.401 SS: 0.494
75% SS: 0.429
125% SS: 0.401
TFA Current / SS: 2.7 ± 0.8
75% SS: 2.1 ± 0.6
125% SS: 3.4 ± 1.0
SS: 103 ± 14
75% SS: 98 ± 14
125% SS: 109 ± 18
SS: 11.1 ± 2.5
75% SS: 2.1 ± 0.6
125% SS: 12.4 ± 2.7
70 ± 21 35 ± 30 SS: 9 ± 3
75% SS: 9 ± 3
125% SS: 11 ± 4
TD / SS: 2.9 ± 0.9
75% SS: 2.2 ± 0.7
125% SS: 3.6 ± 1.1
SS: 105 ± 15
75% SS: 100 ± 15
125% SS: 113 ± 18
SS: 12.2 ± 2.8
75% SS: 11.5 ± 3.2
125% SS: 14.1 ± 4.5
80 ± 15 44 ± 29 SS: 9 ± 2
75% SS: 9 ± 3
125% SS: 11 ± 3
p-value / SS: 0.184
75% SS: 0.192
125% SS: 0.192
SS: 0.112
75% SS: 0.121
125% SS: 0.154
SS: 0.112
75% SS: 0.329
125% SS: 0.112
0.112 0.121 SS: 0.349
75% SS: 0.352
125% SS: 0.121
3mBWT TTA Current 4.42 ± 1.36 / 106 ± 16 / 62 ± 28 20 ± 20 9 ± 2
TD 4.98 ± 1.48 / 105 ± 15 / 73 ± 23 21 ± 22 9 ± 2
p-value 0.005 / 0.429 / 0.200 0.429 0.317
TFA Current 7.04 ± 3.32 / 97 ± 12 / 72 ± 21 24 ± 28 8 ± 2
TD 7.27 ± 3.73 / 100 ± 12 / 80 ± 21 24 ± 28 8 ± 3
p-value 0.349 / 0.112 / 0.117 0.329 0.414
  1. Mean ± SD (unless mentioned otherwise)
  2. * (spm): steps per minute; /: not applicable
  3. VAS: visual analogue scale; RPE: rating of perceived exertion; Stair climbing: 2 min of stair climbing; Slope walking: 2 min of inclined treadmill walking at 10%; 3mBWT: 3-m Backward Walk test; 6MWT: 6 min of treadmill walking at 3 different speeds in consecutive blocks of 2 min; Current: participants’ current prosthesis; TD: Talaris Demonstrator; SS: self-selected speed; TTA: participant with a unilateral transtibial amputation; TFA: participant with a unilateral transfemoral amputation