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Table 3 Material properties and element types of lumbar FE model components

From: Influence of posterior pedicle screw fixation at L4–L5 level on biomechanics of the lumbar spine with and without fusion: a finite element method

FE sections Young’s modulus (MPa) Poisson’s ratio Elements (FEM) References
Cortical bone 12,000 0.3 S3 triangular shell elements Kurutz [42]
Cancellous bone 100 0.2 C3D8R hexahedral elements
Endplate 23.8 0.4 C3D8R hexahedral elements
Nucleus pulposus 1 0.499 C3D8R hexahedral elements Galbusera et al. [47]
Annulus ground substance Mooney–Rivlin, C10 = 0.13, C01 = 0.03, D = 0.6 C3D8R hexahedral elements Wang et al. [54]
Annulus fibrosus layers Mooney–Rivlin, C10 = 0.13, C01 = 0.03, D = 0.6 M3D4R quadrilateral elements
Fibers of layer 1 550 0.45 Rebar Tsouknidas et al. [45]
Fibers of layer 2 495 0.45 Rebar
Fibers of layer 3 440 0.45 Rebar
Fibers of layer 4 420 0.45 Rebar
Fibers of layer 5 385 0.45 Rebar
Fibers of layer 6 360 0.45 Rebar
Ligaments Nonlinear stress–strain curves Connectors Naserkhaki et al. [51]
Pedicle screws and rods 110,000 0.3 C3D8R-C3D10 hexahedral elements–quadrilateral elements Kang et al. [5]