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Table 2 Comparison of predicted facet load of the INT, IMP, and IMPF models for all segments of the L1–L5 lumbar spine

From: Influence of posterior pedicle screw fixation at L4–L5 level on biomechanics of the lumbar spine with and without fusion: a finite element method

  Extension Lateral bending Axial rotation
Condition L1–L2 L2–L3 L3–L4 L4–L5 L1–L2 L2–L3 L3–L4 L4–L5 L1–L2 L2–L3 L3–L4 L4–L5
INT 44.3 (100%) 95.2 (100%) 101 (100%) 117.6 (100%) 61.7 (100%) 63.8 (100%) 48.7 (100%) 26.4 (100%) 118.2 (100%) 133.4 (100%) 125.6 (100%) 101.3 (100%)
IMP 52.8 (119%) 114.5 (120%) 136.2 (135%) 0 (0%) 75.5 (122%) 79.7 (125%) 60.1 (123%) 0 (0%) 112.9 (96%) 126.9 (95%) 127.9 (102%) 96.8 (96%)
IMPF 60.2 (136%) 131.7 (138%) 155.7 (154%) 0 (0%) 88.5 (143%) 96 (151%) 73.2 (150%) 0 (0%) 157.1 (133%) 177 (133%) 178.1 (142%) 0 (0%)
  1. Units of all values are Newton. Percentages indicate the ROM of all models normalized by the ROM of the intact model