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Table 6 Lower limb exoskeleton rehabilitation robots

From: Robotic devices for paediatric rehabilitation: a review of design features

System (year) Treated part of the body DOFs Actuator Type of rehabilitation Type of training HCI input Paediatric disease (design for or treated condition) Paediatric design Stage of the device
Lokomat (Hokoma, Switzerland) (2007) [203, 204] Hip/knee 4 DC Motors Physical therapy Passive/active/assistive/ Impedance Neurological Yes Clinical trial/commercial (FDA)
HAL (Cyberdyne, Japan) (2007) [91, 129] Hip/knee/ankle 6 DC Motors Physical therapy/assistance Assistive Footswitch EMG CP Yes Clinical trial/commercial (FDA)
HWA (Honda, Japan) (2007) [205, 206] Hip 2 DC Motors Physical therapy/assistance Assistive Movement CP No Clinical trial/commercial
University of Verona (2011) [207] Hip 2 Pneumatic Assistance Assistive Footswitch CP Yes Feasibility study
Ekso-GT (ekso Bionics, USA) (2012) [127, 208] Hip/knee 4 DC motors Physical therapy Passive/assistive Hip movement ABI No Clinical trial/commercial (FDA)
PediAnklebot (2015) [75, 118] Ankle 2 active + 1 passive DC motors Physical therapy Active/assistive Impedance Neurological Yes Clinical trial
Walkbot K (P&S Mechanics, South Korea) (2016) [209, 210] Hip/knee/ankle 6 AC motors Physical therapy Passive/assistive/active Impedance Physical disabled Yes Clinical trial/commercial (FDA)
Robogait (Bama teknoloji, Turkey) (2017) [211, 212] Hip/knee 4 Electric motors Physical therapy Assistive Force Physical disabled No Clinical trial/commercial
WAKE-Up (2017) [17, 213] Knee/ankle 4 SEA Assistance Assistive Footswitch CP Yes Feasibility study
Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (2017) [214] Hip/knee 4 DC motors Physical therapy Passive Physical disabled Yes Prototype
CPWalker (2017) [92, 154] Hip/knee 4 DC motors Physical therapy Passive/active/assistive Impedance/EEG/LRF Neurological Yes Clinical trial
Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (2017) [94, 215] Ankle 1 DC motor Physical therapy Passive/assistive/resistive/active Torque/position ABI No Clinical trial
ATLAS (2017) [146, 167, 216] Hip/knee/ankle 10 SEA Assistance Active/assistive/passive Footswitch/position/force SMA, SCI Yes Clinical trial
P.REX (2017) [95, 100] Knee 1 DC motor Physical therapy/assistance Assistive Footswitch/position/torque CP Yes Clinical trial
University of Arizona ankle (2018) [73] Ankle 1 DC motors/cable driven Physical therapy Assistive/resistive Footswitch/torque CP Yes Clinical trial
Tsukuba University (2018) [74] Knee 2 Electric brake Assistance Assistive Footswitch CP Yes Feasibility study
Los Olivos University (2018) [217] Hip/knee 4 DC motors Assistance Assistive Joystick DMD Yes Prototype
P-Legs (2019) [71] Hip/knee/ankle 6 DC motors Physical therapy/assistance Passive/assistive Impedance Neurological Yes Prototype
ExRoLEG (2019) [218] Knee 2 Linear actuators Physical therapy/assistance Assistive EMG/limit switch CP Yes Prototype
Cleveland State University (2019) [176, 219] Hip/knee 4 DC motors Physical therapy/assistance Assistive Position velocities CP Yes Prototype
ExoRoboWalker (2019) [220] Hip/knee/ankle 6 DC motors Physical therapy Passive   CP Yes Prototype
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (2020) [49] Hip/knee/ankle 6 DC motors Physical therapy Passive   Physical disabled Yes Prototype
Instituto Politécnico Nacional (2020) [221] Hip/knee/ankle 6 DC motors Physical therapy Assistive EMG Physical disabled Yes Prototype