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Table 5 Lower limb end-effectors rehabilitation robots

From: Robotic devices for paediatric rehabilitation: a review of design features

System (year)

Treated part of the body

DOFs

Actuator

Type of rehabilitation

Type of training

HCI input

Paediatric disease (design for or treated condition)

Paediatric design

Stage of the device

GAIT trainer GT 1 (REHA-STIM MEDTEC, Switzerland) (2000) [188, 189]

Hip/knee

2

DC Motors

Physical therapy

Passive/assistive

Velocity

Neurological

No

Clinical trial/commercial

MOTOmed gracile (RECK, Germany) (2000) [190, 191]

Hip/knee

2

DC motors

Physical therapy

Passive /active/assistive/resistive

Velocity

Physical disabled

Yes

Clinical trial/commercial (FDA)

IntelliStretch (Rehabtek, USA) (2002) [192, 193]

Ankle

1

DC motor

Physical therapy

Passive/active/assistive/resistive

Velocity and torque

Neurological

No

Clinical trial/commercial (FDA)

Innowalk (Made for Movement, Norway)(2009) [114, 194]

Hip/knee

2

Electric motors

Physical therapy

Passive

Neuromuscular problems

Yes

Clinical trial/commercial

National Taiwan University (2009) [195]

Hip/knee

2

DC motors

Physical therapy

Passive

CP

Yes

Prototype

3DcaLT (2011) [134, 196]

Hip/knee

4

Electric motors/cable driven

Physical therapy

Active /assistive/resistive

Motion

CP

No

Clinical trial

Paediatric ICARE (2011) [197, 198]

Hip/knee

2

DC motors

Physical therapy

Active/assistive/resistive

Speed

Neurological

Yes

Feasibility study

Rutger ankle CP system (2011) [112, 199]

Ankle

6

Pneumatic

Physical therapy

Active/resistive

CP

Yes

Clinical trial

SS-POINT (2013) [135, 200]

Ankle

2

DC motors

Physical therapy

Passive/active/resistive

Neurological

No

Clinical trial

TPAD (2014) [102, 103]

Hip/knee

6

AC motors

Physical therapy

Assistive/resistive

Motion

CP

No

Clinical trial

Pedbot(2016) [153, 201]

Ankle

3

DC motors

Physical therapy

Active/assistive/resistive

Position

CP

Yes

Clinical trial

Wyss Institute (2017) [202]

Hip/knee

8

DC motors/cable driven

Physical therapy

Assistive

Gait segmentation/motion/force

CP

Yes

Prototype

Pro-Gait (2017) [40]

Hip/knee

2

DC motors

Physical therapy

Passive

 

CP

Yes

Prototype

UFMG (2017) [87]

Hip/knee

2

Electric motors

Physical therapy

Passive

CP

Yes

Prototype

Leg Press (2017) [89]

Knee

2

Linear electrical motors

Physical therapy

Assistive/resistive

Impedance

Neurological

Yes

Prototype