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Table 4 Upper limb exoskeleton rehabilitation robots

From: Robotic devices for paediatric rehabilitation: a review of design features

System (year)

Treated part of the body

DOFs

Actuator

Type of rehabilitation

Type of training

HCI input

Paediatric disease (design for or treated condition)

Paediatric design

Stage of the device

KINARM (KinArm, Canada) (1999) [82, 186]

Shoulder/elbow

2

DC motors

Physical therapy

Passive/active

Neurological

No

Clinical trial/commercial

IOTA (2013) [175]

Thumb

2

DC motors/cable driven

Physical therapy

Passive/active/assistive

Movement

Neurological

Yes

Prototype

ChARMin (2014) [57]

Shoulder/elbow/wrist

6

Electric motors

Physical therapy

Passive/active/assistive

Movement

Neurological

Yes

Feasibility study

Universidad Nacional de San Juan (2014) [130]

Elbow

1

DC Motor

Physical therapy

Passive/assistive

EMG

Injuries

Yes

Clinical trial

Milwaukee University (2014) [187]

Wrist

2 actuated + 2 passives

DC motors/cable driven

Physical therapy

Assistive

Position

CP

Yes

Prototype

GLOREHA (2016) (IDROGENET, Italy) [33, 107]

Hand

5

Pneumatic

Physical therapy

Passive/active/assistive

Movement

Neurological

No

Clinical trial/commercial

(FDA)

HAL single joint (Cyberdyne, Japan) (2019) [84]

Elbow

1

DC motor

Physical therapy/assistance

Assistive

EMG

CP

No

Clinical trial/commercial

PEXO (2019) [26]

Hand

2 Actuated + 1 passive

DC motors/cable driven

Physical therapy/assistance

Passive/assistive

Push buttons or EMG

Neurological

Yes

Feasibility study

PneuGlove (2019) [113]

Hand

5

Pneumatic

Physical therapy

Active/assistive/resistive

Movement

CP

Yes

Feasibility study

Exohand-2 (Android Technics, Russia) (2020) [131]

Hand

2 Each hand

Electric motors

Physical therapy

Assistive

EEG

CP

No

Clinical trial/commercial