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Table 4 Upper limb exoskeleton rehabilitation robots

From: Robotic devices for paediatric rehabilitation: a review of design features

System (year) Treated part of the body DOFs Actuator Type of rehabilitation Type of training HCI input Paediatric disease (design for or treated condition) Paediatric design Stage of the device
KINARM (KinArm, Canada) (1999) [82, 186] Shoulder/elbow 2 DC motors Physical therapy Passive/active Neurological No Clinical trial/commercial
IOTA (2013) [175] Thumb 2 DC motors/cable driven Physical therapy Passive/active/assistive Movement Neurological Yes Prototype
ChARMin (2014) [57] Shoulder/elbow/wrist 6 Electric motors Physical therapy Passive/active/assistive Movement Neurological Yes Feasibility study
Universidad Nacional de San Juan (2014) [130] Elbow 1 DC Motor Physical therapy Passive/assistive EMG Injuries Yes Clinical trial
Milwaukee University (2014) [187] Wrist 2 actuated + 2 passives DC motors/cable driven Physical therapy Assistive Position CP Yes Prototype
GLOREHA (2016) (IDROGENET, Italy) [33, 107] Hand 5 Pneumatic Physical therapy Passive/active/assistive Movement Neurological No Clinical trial/commercial
(FDA)
HAL single joint (Cyberdyne, Japan) (2019) [84] Elbow 1 DC motor Physical therapy/assistance Assistive EMG CP No Clinical trial/commercial
PEXO (2019) [26] Hand 2 Actuated + 1 passive DC motors/cable driven Physical therapy/assistance Passive/assistive Push buttons or EMG Neurological Yes Feasibility study
PneuGlove (2019) [113] Hand 5 Pneumatic Physical therapy Active/assistive/resistive Movement CP Yes Feasibility study
Exohand-2 (Android Technics, Russia) (2020) [131] Hand 2 Each hand Electric motors Physical therapy Assistive EEG CP No Clinical trial/commercial