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Table 2 The six nebulizer types used in the study, delivered dose and percentage delivered dosage for loading dose (DD/LD) and emitted dose (DD/ED) values obtained in Experiment 2 (mean \(\pm\) SD) *\(p < 0.05\) versus the JN-PARIr

From: In vitro delivery efficiencies of nebulizers for different breathing patterns

Breathing Parameter Jet Static mesh Vibrating mesh
JN-PARIr JN-PARIb SMN-U22 SMN-U150 VMN-SM1 VMN-SM3
ISO 27427:2013 Delivered dose (mg) 0.312 \(\pm\) 0.037 0.256 \(\pm\) 0.008* 0.281 \(\pm\) 0.008 0.353 \(\pm\) 0.012 0.417 \(\pm\) 0.015* 0.251 \(\pm\) 0.028*
DD/LD (%) 15.60 \(\pm\) 1.87 12.80 \(\pm\) 0.41* 14.06 \(\pm\) 0.38 17.68 \(\pm\) 0.59 20.86 \(\pm\) 0.74* 12.58 \(\pm\) 1.37*
DD/ED (%) 24.01 \(\pm\) 2.87 19.70 \(\pm\) 0.63* 21.63 \(\pm\) 0.59 27.20 \(\pm\) 0.91 32.09 \(\pm\) 1.14* 19.35 \(\pm\) 2.11*
Normal adult Delivered dose (mg) 0.197 \(\pm\) 0.020 0.147 \(\pm\) 0.004* 0.171 \(\pm\) 0.009 0.210 \(\pm\) 0.008 0.247 \(\pm\) 0.013* 0.156 \(\pm\) 0.008*
DD/LD (%) 9.84 \(\pm\) 1.02 7.35 \(\pm\) 0.18* 8.53 \(\pm\) 0.46 10.50 \(\pm\) 0.38 12.38 \(\pm\) 0.64* 7.81 \(\pm\) 0.42*
DD/ED (%) 15.14 \(\pm\) 1.57 11.31 \(\pm\) 0.28* 13.12 \(\pm\) 0.71 16.16 \(\pm\) 0.59 19.04 \(\pm\) 0.98* 12.01 \(\pm\) 0.65*
Asthma Delivered dose (mg) 0.137 \(\pm\) 0.020 0.092 \(\pm\) 0.010* 0.111 \(\pm\) 0.004* 0.155 \(\pm\) 0.002 0.217 \(\pm\) 0.007* 0.112 \(\pm\) 0.011
DD/LD (%) 6.83 \(\pm\) 1.04 4.63 \(\pm\) 0.48* 5.52 \(\pm\) 0.23* 7.75 \(\pm\) 0.10 10.88 \(\pm\) 0.36* 5.61 \(\pm\) 0.57
DD/ED (%) 10.51 \(\pm\) 1.59 7.13 \(\pm\) 0.73* 8.49 \(\pm\) 0.35* 11.92 \(\pm\) 0.15 16.74 \(\pm\) 0.56* 8.63 \(\pm\) 0.88
COPD Delivered dose (mg) 0.130 \(\pm\) 0.012 0.088 \(\pm\) 0.010* 0.108 \(\pm\) 0.011 0.114 \(\pm\) 0.008 0.176 \(\pm\) 0.028* 0.093 \(\pm\) 0.008*
DD/LD (%) 6.48 \(\pm\) 0.60 4.42 \(\pm\) 0.49* 5.56 \(\pm\) 0.21 5.73 \(\pm\) 0.41 8.84 \(\pm\) 1.42* 4.66 \(\pm\) 0.38*
DD/ED (%) 9.97 \(\pm\) 0.92 6.80 \(\pm\) 0.74* 8.56 \(\pm\) 0.32 8.82 \(\pm\) 0.63 13.59 \(\pm\) 2.19 7.18 \(\pm\) 0.59*