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Fig. 5 | BioMedical Engineering OnLine

Fig. 5

From: How muscle stiffness affects human body model behavior

Fig. 5

Comparison of Young’s moduli for muscles from literature (dots) and numerical simulation (lines) of this work. For the numerical data, the Young’s moduli were calculated from linear fits of the stress–strain curves of the respective elements shown in Fig. 4. Data from ‘near thigh’ are abbreviated with ‘th’, ‘periphery anus’ with ‘an. Literature data include different contractile states of different muscles (in vivo) or muscle samples (ex vivo) from humans, bovines and porcines. Indicators refer to the respective literature source, referenced and further explained in Table 1. Additional literature data on Shear moduli are shown in Fig. 21. The majority of the literature data shown were summarized prior to this study [40]. Apart from the subdivision in different contractile states, there is no correlation on the abscissa of the data points. Distances of data points within one group are arbitrary

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