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Table 1 Overall outcomes for first- and second-order models and comparison of outcome differences (see also Fig. 2)

From: Identification of heart rate dynamics during treadmill exercise: comparison of first- and second-order models

  Mean ± SD MD (95% CI) p-value
  \(P_1\) \(P_2\) \(P_2 - P_1\)  
RMSE/bpm 2.27 ± 0.36 2.07 ± 0.36 \(-0.19\) (\(- \infty \), \(-0.16\)) 2.8 \(\times \) \(10^{-10}\)
fit/% 50.2 ± 4.8 54.5 ± 5.2 4.3 (3.6, \(+ \infty \)) 6.8 \(\times \) \(10^{-10}\)
  1. \(n = 22\)
  2. \(P_1\) first-order models, \(P_2\) second-order models, SD standard deviation, MD mean difference, 95% CI confidence interval for the mean difference , p-value paired one-sided t tests, RMSE root-mean-square error, fit normalised root-mean-square error, bpm beats per min