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Table 4 Summary of types of MXenes, their syntheses methods, surface functionalization and biomedical applications. Note: LOD indicates the lowest level of detection within the detection range stated. LOD is the lowest concentration of a substance/analyte that can be detected by a reliable analytical method, whereas the detection range includes lowest to highest concentrations of substance that are able to be detected accurately and precisely

From: MXene in the lens of biomedical engineering: synthesis, applications and future outlook

Type of MXene/MXene composite Synthesis method of MXene Functionalization(s) Application Application details Ref
TiO2–Ti3C2 Hydrothermal synthesis Hemoglobin (Hb), Nafion Bio-sensor Detection of hydrogen peroxide (LOD: 14 nM; range: 0.1380 μM)
and nitrite (LOD: 0.12 μM; range: 0.1380 μM) via amperometry changes
[44, 45]
Au/Ti3C2 HF etching Glucose oxidase (GOx) Detection of hydrogen peroxide through oxidation of glucose
(LOD: 5.9 μM; range: 0.1–18 mM)
[46]
Ti3C2 LiF + HCl etching Poly-L-lysine (PLL), GOx Detection of hydrogen peroxide through oxidation of glucose
(LOD: 2.6 μM; range: 420 μM, 0.021.1 mM)
[47]
Ti3C2 HF etching Tyrosinase, chitosan Detection of phenol in real water samples
(LOD: 12 nM; range: 0.0515.5 μM)
[48]
Ti3C2 HF etching β-hydroxybutarate dehydrogenase, bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutarate Detection of β-hydroxybutarate
(LOD: 44.5 μM; range: 360 μM17.91 mM)
[49]
Ti3C2 LiF + HCl etching (3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), BSA, anti-CEA Detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
(LOD: 1.8 × 10–5 ng mL−1; range: 0.00012000 ng mL−1)
[50]
Ti3C2 HF etching, TMAOH intercalation AuNPs, staphylococcal protein A, anti-CEA Detection of CEA via surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
(LOD: 0.7 fM; range: 0.000220 000 pM)
[51]
Ti3C2 HF etching Hollow AuNPs, APTES, SPA, anti-CEA Detection of CEA via SPR
(LOD: 0.15 fM; range: 0.0011000 pM)
[52]
Ti3C2 HF etching, DMSO intercalation Osteopontin (OPN) aptamer, phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12), polypyrrole (PPy), Detection of overexpressed OPN
(LOD: 0.98 fg mL−1; range: 0.005 pg mL−110 ng mL−1)
[53]
Ta4C3 HF etching Manganese oxide (MnOx), soybean phospholipid (SP) Cancer theranostics Multi-imaging-guided (MRI, CT scan and PAI) PTT [54]
Ti3C2 HF etching, TPAOH intercalation Manganese oxide (MnOx), soybean phospholipid (SP) MRI-guided PTT [55]
Ta4C3 HF etching Supermagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) MRI-guided PTT [56]
Ti3C2 HF etching, TPAOH intercalation Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), SP, IONPs MRI-guided PTT [34]
Nb2C HF etching, TPAOH intercalation Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) PAI-guided PTT [57]
Nb2C HF etching, TPAOH intercalation Cetanecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), APTES, polyethylene glycol (PEG) PAI-guided PTT [58]
Ti3C2 QDs Hydrothermal synthesis Multicolour cellular imaging [59]
Ti3C2 QDs Sonication probing in TPAOH PTT in NIR biowindow, biocompatibility test [60]
Ti2N QDs KF + HCl etching, sonication in NMP SP PAI-guided PTT [61]
Nb2C QDs HF etching, TPAOH sonication (ultrasound-assisted) Fluorescence imaging, metal ions sensing [62]
Ti3C2 HF etching, TPAOH intercalation SP, doxorubicin (Dox) Drug delivery Chemotherapeutic agent, synergistic chemotherapy and PTT [63]
Ti3C2 HF etching Cellulose, Dox Chemotherapeutic agent, synergistic chemotherapy and PTT [64]
Ti3C2 HF etching Polyacrylamide (PAM) Study of drug release [65]
Ti3C2 LiF + HCl etching Cobalt nanowires (CoNWs), Dox Study of drug release control, synergistic chemotherapy and PTT [66]
Ti3C2 LiF + HCl etching Antimicrobial activity Study of antibacterial activity [67]
Ti3C2 LiF + HCl etching PVDF For wastewater treatment [68]
Ti3C2 LiF + HCl etching Chitosan, glutaraldehyde Study of antibacterial activity [69]
Ti3C2, Ti2C HF etching Comparison study of antibacterial activity [70]
Ti3C2 HF etching PLL Study of antibacterial activity [22]
Ti3C2 LiF + HCl etching Study of antibacterial activity [71]
Ti3C2 HF etching Study of antifungal activity [20]