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Table 2 Etching and intercalant conditions of MXene (top-down approach) synthesis as reported by several key studies

From: MXene in the lens of biomedical engineering: synthesis, applications and future outlook

MAX phase(s) Etchant (conditions) Intercalant (conditions) Ref
Ti3AlC2 50% HF (2 h, RT) [10]
Ti3AlC2 48% HF (24 h, RT) TMAOH (24 h, RT) [22]
Ti3AlC2 40% HF (2 days, 45 °C) TMAOH (3 days, 45 °C) [16]
Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC, Nb2AlC LiF + HCl (45 h, 40 °C) [23]
Ti3AlC2 LiF + HCl (24 h, 50 °C)
NH4F + HCl (24 h, 30 °C)
KF/NaF + HCl (48 h, 40 °C)


[24]
Ti2AlC LiF + HCl (48 h, 50 °C)
NH4F/KF + HCl (48 h, 40 °C)
NaF + HCl (24 h, 60 °C)


DMSO (24 h), NH3.H2O (2 h) or urea (24 h, 60 °C)
Ti3AlC2 NH4HF2 (10–160 min, RT) [25]
Ti3AlC2 NaOH (12 h, 270 °C) [27]
Ti4AlN3 Mixture of LiF, KF, NaF
(30 min, 550 °C)
TBAOH (5 min) [28]
Ti3AlC2 DMSO (18 h, RT) [31]
Nb2AlC 50% HF (48 h, 55 °C) Isopropylamine (18 h, RT) [32]
V2AlC
Ti3AlCN
48% HF (92 h, RT)
30% HF (18 h, RT)
TBAOH (4 h, RT) [33]
Ti3AlC2 40% HF (3 days, RT) TPAOH (3 days, RT) [34]