Skip to main content

Table 6 Kinematic differences between people with and without HIV as measured by the respective systems

From: Kinematics and temporospatial parameters during gait from inertial motion capture in adults with and without HIV: a validity and reliability study

Kinematic angle Mean difference 95% CI p-value Mean difference 95% CI p-value
IMU OMC
Ankle
 Ankle dorsiflexion ROM during stance (A1) − 0.3° − 4.1°; 3.5° 0.87 − 0.6° − 4.7°; 3.5° 0.76
 Ankle dorsiflexion ROM during swing 6.4°* − 1.2°; 13.9° 0.09 6.4°* − 0.6°; 13.4° 0.07
 Ankle plantarflexion ROM during push off (A2) 4.3° − 2.3°; 11.0° 0.18 6.1°* − 0.3°; 12.4° 0.06
 Ankle dorsiflexion angle at IC − 1.5° − 4.8°; 1.9° 0.36 − 1.2° − 4.2°; 1.8° 0.42
 Ankle plantarflexion angle at TO 4.6° − 2.1°; 11.4° 0.16 5.6°* 0.0°; 11.3° 0.05
 Peak ankle plantarflexion during GC 5.9°* − 1.6°; 13.4° 0.11 7.2°* 0.2°; 14.3° 0.05
Knee
 Knee flexion ROM during GC 2.6° − 3.3°; 8.4° 0.36 3.6° − 1.4°; 8.6° 0.15
 Knee flexion ROM during stance (K1) 0.3° − 4.7°; 5.4° 0.90 − 0.6° − 5.4°; 4.3° 0.80
 Knee flexion ROM from stance to swing (K3) 3.9° 0.0°; 7.8° 0.05 4.1° 0.2°; 8.1° 0.04*
 Knee extension ROM, MSt to TSt (K2) 2.7° − 2.3°; 7.8° 0.26 1.8° − 3.5°; 7.1° 0.47
 Knee flexion at IC 0.0° − 5.3°; 5.3° 1.00 0.1° − 4.1°; 4.4° 0.95
 Peak knee flexion during stance, LR − 1.1° − 6.8°; 4.6° 0.69 − 1.8° − 7.3°; 3.7° 0.49
 Peak knee extension during stance 1.0° − 3.4°; 5.5° 0.63 1.7° − 1.6°; 5.0° 0.30
 Peak knee flexion during swing 1.9° − 0.8°; 4.6° 0.16 2.0° − 0.5°; 4.6° 0.11
Hip
 Hip flexion ROM during GC 4.6° 0.2°; 9.0° 0.04* 2.6° − 1.5°; 6.7° 0.19
 Hip flexion ROM during LR − 1.2° − 3.5°; 1.1° 0.28 − 0.4° − 2.7°; 1.8° 0.69
 Hip flexion ROM, PS to IS (H3) 0.4° − 3.1°; 3.8° 0.83 − 1.2° − 3.4°; 1.1° 0.28
 Hip flexion angle at IC − 0.66° − 10.4°; 9.3° 0.90 − 0.8° − 9.3°; 7.8° 0.85
 Peak hip flexion during swing 0.7° − 8.4°; 9.7° 0.87 − 0.8° − 8.4°; 6.9° 0.84
 Peak hip extension during stance 3.7° − 5.2°; 12.7° 0.39 3.3° − 4.8°; 11.5° 0.397
 Hip abduction ROM during mid-stance − 0.4° − 3.4°; 2.6° 0.79 2.8° 0.9°; 4.8° 0.01*
 Hip adduction ROM during loading response 1.6° − 1.2°; 4.4° 0.24 1.3° − 0.7°; 3.2° 0.18
 Hip internal rotation ROM during GC 1.1° − 3.1°; 5.3° 0.59 2.1° − 1.9°; 6.0° 0.28
Pelvis
 Pelvis tilt ROM during GC 0.5° − 1.9°; 3.0° 0.65 0.7° − 0.4°; 1.9° 0.20
 Peak pelvis anterior tilt during GC − 1.6° − 9.6°; 6.3° 0.66 − 1.4° − 8.6°; 5.8° 0.69
 Pelvis obliquity ROM during GC 1.2° − 2.0°; 4.4° 0.44 3.5° − 0.4°; 7.5° 0.08
 Pelvis rotation ROM during GC 0.6° − 6.2°; 7.4° 0.85 1.4° − 4.0°; 6.8° 0.60
 Pelvis rotation at IC 0.5° − 2.8°; 3.9° 0.74 0.7° − 2.9°; 4.3° 0.68
  1. Asterisks indicate clinically and/or statistically significant differences between participant groups
  2. A1 corresponding to A1 power phase of ankle, A2 corresponding to A2 power phase of ankle, H3 corresponding to H3 power phase of hip, HR heel rise, IC initial contact, K1 corresponding to K1 power phase of knee, K2 corresponding to K2 power phase of knee, K3 corresponding to K3 power phase of knee, LR loading response, MSt mid-stance, PLHIV people living with HIV-1 infection, ROM range of motion, SEM standard error of measurement, SNP HIV-seronegative participants, TO toe-off, TSt terminal stance