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Table 4 Absolute reliability (measurement error) of kinematic angles measured by inertial measurement units

From: Kinematics and temporospatial parameters during gait from inertial motion capture in adults with and without HIV: a validity and reliability study

Angle/ROM (degrees) SNP PLHIV
SEM Upper 95% CL SEM Upper 95% CL
Pelvis
 Pelvis tilt ROM 0.7 0.8 0.8 1.0
 Peak pelvis anterior tilt 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.4
 Pelvis obliquity ROM 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.3
 Pelvis rotation ROM 2.1 2.5 1.8 2.2
 Pelvis rotation, IC 5.2 6.2 3.7 4.4
Hip
 Hip flexion ROM 2.4 2.9 2.1 2.5
 Hip flexion ROM, LR 1.7 2.0 2.6 3.1
 Hip flexion ROM, PS to IS (H3) 2.3 2.8 2.0 2.4
 Hip flexion, IC 2.4 2.9 2.1 2.5
 Peak hip flexion, swing 2.2 2.6 2.1 2.5
 Peak hip extension, stance 1.8 2.2 2.4 2.9
 Hip abduction ROM, mid-stance 2.6 3.1 2.0 2.4
 Hip adduction ROM, LR 1.4 1.7 1.5 1.8
 Hip internal rotation ROM 2.6 3.1 2.8 3.4
Knee
 Knee flexion ROM 1.4 1.7 2.2 2.6
 Knee flexion ROM, stance (K1) 2.9 3.5 2.5 3.0
 Knee flexion ROM, stance to swing (K3) 3.0 3.6 2.8 3.4
 Knee extension ROM, MSt to TSt (K2) 1.9 2.3 2.4 2.9
 Knee flexion, IC 3.0 3.6 3.2 3.8
 Peak knee flexion during stance, LR 3.9 4.7 5.8 7.0
 Peak knee extension, stance 2.9 3.5 3.1 3.7
 Peak knee flexion, swing 2.0 2.4 2.9 3.5
Ankle
 Ankle dorsiflexion ROM, stance (A1) 2.0 2.4 1.9 2.3
 Ankle dorsiflexion ROM, swing 2.9 3.5 3.3 4.0
 Ankle plantarflexion ROM, push off (A2) 2.2 2.6 3.7 4.4
 Ankle dorsiflexion, IC 2.0 2.4 2.1 2.5
 Ankle plantarflexion, TO 5.2 6.2 4.4 5.3
 Peak ankle plantarflexion 4.1 4.9 4.4 5.3
  1. A1 corresponding to A1 power phase of ankle, A2 corresponding to A2 power phase of ankle, H3 corresponding to H3 power phase of hip, HR heel rise, IC initial contact, K1 corresponding to K1 power phase of knee, K2 corresponding to K2 power phase of knee, K3 corresponding to K3 power phase of knee, LR loading response, MSt mid-stance, PLHIV people living with HIV-1 infection, ROM range of motion, SEM standard error of measurement, SNP HIV-seronegative participants, TO toe-off, TSt terminal stance