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Table 3 Absolute reliability (measurement error) of gait parameters measured by inertial measurement units

From: Kinematics and temporospatial parameters during gait from inertial motion capture in adults with and without HIV: a validity and reliability study

Parameter SEM %SEM Upper 95% CL SEM %SEM Upper 95% CL
SNP PLHIV
Spatial parameters
 Step length (cm) 4.01 6.09 4.81 4.33 6.82 5.20
 Normalized step length 0.04 5.20 0.05 0.05 6.98 0.06
 Stride length (cm) 3.20 2.46 3.84 4.03 3.23 4.84
 Normalized stride length 0.04 2.65 0.05 0.05 3.56 0.06
Temporal parameters
 Cadence (steps/min) 8.31 7.08 9.97 9.67 8.82 11.60
 Normalized cadence 2.45 7.04 2.94 2.83 8.57 3.40
 Stance time (s) 0.06 9.78 0.07 0.03 4.48 0.04
 Step time (s) 0.04 7.70 0.05 0.04 7.22 0.05
 Single support time (s) 0.03 7.14 0.04 0.03 6.91 0.04
 Double support time (s) 0.03 15.23 0.04 0.03 12.77 0.04
Temporophasic parameters
 Stance percentage (%GC) 1.97 3.31 2.36 1.60 2.63 1.92
 Single support percentage (%GC) 2.56 6.34 3.07 2.49 6.32 2.99
 Double support percentage (%GC) 2.18 11.42 2.62 2.30 10.71 2.76
Temporospatial parameters
 Gait speed (m/s) 0.02 1.58 0.02 0.02 1.75 0.02
 Normalized gait speed 0.04 9.20 0.05 0.04 10.34 0.05
  1. SEM 95% CL were calculated using a sample-and-trial-specific multiplying factor of 1.2 [19]
  2. %SEM absolute percentage SEM, CL confidence limits of SEM, GC gait cycle, PLHIV people living with HIV-1 infection, SEM standard error of measurement, SNP HIV-seronegative participants