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Table 3 Sway measures (RMS, MV, f95, ∆tc) and model parameters (KP, KD, KI, Kn, τd) of patients with PD, at pre-, week 2, week 4, and post-training, in F-tasks (FO: stance on foam with eyes open, and FC: stance on foam with eyes closed)

From: Postural control learning dynamics in Parkinson’s disease: early improvement with plateau in stability, and continuous progression in flexibility and mobility

TaskPD patients (n = 20)ANOVA
P value
(F-value)
Effect sizeTukey P value for post-hoc comparisons
Sway measures/model parametersPre (T1)Week 2 (T2)Week 4 (T3)Post (T4)T1–T2T1–T3T1–T4T2–T3T2–T4T3–T4
FO
 RMS (mm)10.72 ± 2.899.20 ± 2.479.73 ± 2.219.37 ± 1.980.041 (2.94)0.1340.1050.3970.2270.6740.9870.840
 MV (mm/s)19.80 ± 6.5219.17 ± 6.3019.89 ± 5.8218.51 ± 4.700.616 (0.603)0.0310.9441.0000.6310.9330.9370.629
 f95 (Hz)1.05 ± 0.241.12 ± 0.221.31 ± 0.33*1.32 ± 0.35*0.0001 (8.11)0.2990.5490.0160.0200.0260.0590.996
 ∆tc (s)1.58 ± 0.441.43 ± 0.451.21 ± 0.25*1.31 ± 0.28*0.003 (5.35)0.2200.6480.0060.0430.1160.6660.308
 KP (N.m/deg)18.52 ± 4.3418.69 ± 5.2120.49 ± 5.7819.75 ± 5.210.021 (3.50)0.1560.9920.1230.2760.2370.3970.299
 KD (N.m.s/deg)5.23 ± 1.655.12 ± 1.465.34 ± 1.175.49 ± 1.330.602 (0.625)0.0320.9900.9900.8440.8240.0880.868
 KI (N.m/deg/s)1.93 ± 1.211.96 ± 1.361.88 ± 0.821.89 ± 1.170.986 (0.048)0.0031.0000.9920.9990.9830.9951.000
 Kn803.6 ± 262787.5 ± 259804.8 ± 172817.5 ± 2080.920 (0.164)0.0090.9881.0000.9830.9810.9340.980
 τd (ms)134.8 ± 34.8125.1 ± 27.2123.8 ± 31.7111.9 ± 23.80.032 (3.15)0.1420.5540.6800.0720.9980.0530.295
FC
 RMS (mm)14.14 ± 2.8313.40 ± 3.3412.46 ± 2.33*12.40 ± 2.81*0.013 (3.90)0.1700.6360.0180.0390.5320.4270.999
 MV (mm/s)29.15 ± 7.8326.56 ± 7.5728.07 ± 8.3426.40 ± 7.220.096 (2.22)0.1050.1280.8450.1710.5480.9990.670
 f95 (Hz)1.23 ± 0.341.21 ± 0.241.42 ± 0.341.44 ± 0.430.002 (5.81)0.2340.9740.0650.1060.0140.0760.988
 ∆tc (s)1.43 ± 0.401.27 ± 0.261.18 ± 0.171.11 ± 0.15*0.001 (6.59)0.2580.2210.0610.0160.4880.0910.576
 KP (N.m/deg)18.82 ± 4.4318.69 ± 5.1020.34 ± 4.82*20.12 ± 5.300.046 (2.84)0.1300.9990.0420.1050.2770.4150.971
 KD (N.m.s/deg)5.17 ± 1.545.29 ± 1.935.27 ± 1.575.80 ± 1.430.120 (2.03)0.0970.9500.9670.0511.0000.5800.256
 KI (N.m/deg/s)2.14 ± 1.192.14 ± 1.081.97 ± 1.072.51 ± 1.540.317 (1.20)0.0601.0000.9350.6140.9340.6520.248
 Kn1273 ± 4991113 ± 4931153 ± 4151145 ± 3720.298 (1.26)0.0620.5100.2900.6080.9670.9691.000
 τd (ms)122.8 ± 37.8124.6 ± 62.8125.1 ± 48.5125.1 ± 46.50.994 (0.026)0.0010.9980.9960.9951.0001.0001.000
  1. Values are reported as mean ± standard deviation. Significant P values are in italics
  2. T1 to T4 refer to pre-, week 2, week 4, and post-training, respectively
  3. *Significantly different from pre-training (P < 0.05); significantly different from week 2 (P < 0.05)