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Table 6 Analysis of robot-assisted spinal surgery based on AR

From: Optimization of virtual and real registration technology based on augmented reality in a surgical navigation system

Authors and yearSurgical approachRadiation exposure time (s/screw or puncture)Study typeAccuracy (%)Complications
Kantelhardt et al. 2011Open and percutaneousFreehand: 77.0; robotic-guided open: 43.0RetrospectiveFreehand: 91.4; robotic: 94.58
Keric et al. 2017Percutaneous22.4Retrospective96.913
Hyun et al. 2016Open and percutaneousFreehand: 13.3; robotic: 3.5ProspectiveFreehand: 98.6; robotic: 1002
Lonjon et al. 2015OpenFreehand: 4.8; robotic: 18.5ProspectiveFreehand: 92; robotic: 97.33
Kim et al. 2016Open and percutaneous4.8ProspectiveFreehand:99.4; robotic:99.4None
Roser et al. 2013Open and percutaneousFreehand: 31.5; robotic: 16.0ProspectiveFreehand: 97.5; robotic: 99None
Solomiichuk et al. 2017Open and percutaneousFreehand: 20.7; robotic: 25.1RetrospectiveFreehand: 83.6; robotic: 84.4None
Macke et al. 2016OpenNot listedRetrospective92.8; 97.6None
This studyMinimally invasiveFreehand: 2; robotic: 2ProspectiveFreehand: 50; robotic: 100None