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Table 5 Summary of articles that report technical accuracy from augmented reality navigation system

From: Optimization of virtual and real registration technology based on augmented reality in a surgical navigation system

Year-author [References]Technical accuracy (mm)Main findings
2016-Kleck et al. [37]5.9 ± 3.5Description of a novel method for evaluation of pedicle screws in 3 dimensions utilizing O-arm and StealthStation navigation
2016-Guha et al. [38]1.8 ± 3.6To characterize the correlation between clinical pedicle screw accuracy, based on postoperative imaging, and absolute quantitative navigation accuracy
2017-Wu et al. [39]1.4–12.3Present an advanced AR system for spinal surgery assistance, and develops entry-point guidance prior to vertebroplasty spinal surgery
2019-Müller et al. [40]3.4 ± 1.6An intraoperative 3D imaging AR navigation system for pedicle screw fixation was developed
2019-Urakov et al. [41]1–5Discusses the potential and limitations of AR in its current state and identifies strategies for successful AR application in future surgery
This study2.5 ± 0.5The software method is used to improve the marking method to achieve higher puncture precision. The robot-assisted surgical puncture that may be realized in the future has been verified and good results have been obtained