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Table 2 Comparison of different Windkessel models

From: A review on low-dimensional physics-based models of systemic arteries: application to estimation of central aortic pressure

Model type Mono-compartment model Multi-compartment model
Two-element model Three-element model Four-element model
Strengths The model structure is simplest The model can describe high frequency effects The model can represent all the frequency effects well The model can represent pulse wave propagation
Weaknesses The model cannot represent high frequency effects There is small error at low frequency Parameter estimation is difficult The model structure is more intricate
The model cannot describe pulse wave propagation