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Table 1 Main applications of Windkessel models, 1D models and tube-load models

From: A review on low-dimensional physics-based models of systemic arteries: application to estimation of central aortic pressure

Model type Main applications References
Windkessel models Estimation of cardiac output [32, 94]
Estimation of total peripheral resistance [112]
Estimation of total arterial compliance [30, 33, 113]
Estimation of aortic input impedance [114, 115]
Estimation of stroke volume [116, 117]
Estimation of central aortic pressure [22, 23, 44,45,46,47,48]
Providing outflow boundary condition [34, 50, 60, 97]
Physiological simulation of circulatory system [118,119,120]
Pathological simulation of circulatory system [121,122,123]
1D models Simulation of pulse wave propagation dynamics [18, 34, 97, 124,125,126,127]
Wave intensity analysis [128,129,130]
Estimation of central aortic pressure [24, 25, 68, 69]
Assessing the performance of algorithms and indexes [131,132,133]
Tube-load models Estimation of pulse wave transit time/velocity [21, 81, 134, 135]
Calculation of forward and backward waves [77, 136, 137]
Estimation of artery stenosis and stiffness [134, 138]
Prediction of the change of vessel diameter [139]
Estimation of central aortic pressure [26, 27, 71,72,73,74, 90, 93]