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Table 4 Stiffness and strength values of the different hierarchial levels summarized by Goh et al. [116], sponge by Jain 1988 [504], film by Koide and Daito [250], threads by Pins et al. [503]

From: Processing of collagen based biomaterials and the resulting materials properties

  Stiffness (young module) (Mpa) Yield strength (Mpa) Molecule
Tissue Bundle Fibril Molecule Film Sponge Thread Tissue Bundle Fibril
Average 701 276 1192 5150 1000 0.014 500 61 22 212 629
Mean absolute deviation 318 132 905 1653     18 10 148 589
Molecule: x 7.4 18.7 4.3 1.0 5.2 370000 10 10.4 28.7 3.0 1.0
  1. Molecule: x is the factor of the physical properties of collagen molecules compared to the presented structure