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Table 4 The clinical assessments of each group

From: Translation of robot-assisted rehabilitation to clinical service: a comparison of the rehabilitation effectiveness of EMG-driven robot hand assisted upper limb training in practical clinical service and in clinical trial with laboratory configuration for chronic stroke

Assessment Group Mean value (95% confidence interval) Paired t test 1-way ANCOVA
PRE POST P (Cohen’s d) P (Partial η2)
FMAfull score Clinic 13.75 (8.09–19.41) 30.31 (23.88–36.75) 0.000 ( − 1.45)*** 0.550 (0.012)
Lab 17.50 (9.95–25.05) 30.88 (23.92–37.83) 0.000 ( − 1.46)***
FMAshoulder/elbow Clinic 10.31 (6.28–14.34) 20.31 (16.18–24.44) 0.000 ( − 1.35)*** 0.782 (0.003)
Lab 12.44 (7.25–17.63) 21.06 (16.16–25.97) 0.000 ( − 1.18)***
FMAwrist/hand Clinic 3.44 (1.37–5.51) 10.00 (7.52–12.48) 0.000 ( − 1.36)*** 0.333 (0.032)
Lab 5.06 (2.34–7.78) 9.81 (6.75–12.87) 0.000 ( − 1.35)***
ARAT Clinic 3.81 (− 0.30 to 7.92) 14.50 (9.56–19.44) 0.000 ( − 1.22)*** 0.175 (0.063)
Lab 11.69 (5.66–17.72) 18.06 (11.43–24.69) 0.000 ( − 1.44)***
FIM Clinic 56.63 (52.05–61.20) 62.13 (59.41–64.84) 0.004 ( − 0.86)** Nil
Lab 58.50 (51.53–65.47) 60.00 (53.39–66.61) 0.161 ( − 0.37)
MASFinger Clinic 1.70 (1.32–2.08) 0.95 (0.68–1.22) 0.000 (1.12)*** 0.622 (0.009)
Lab 1.34 (0.81–1.87) 0.91 (0.52–1.31) 0.085 (0.46)
MASWrist Clinic 1.65 (1.18–2.12) 0.91 (0.56–1.26) 0.001 (0.97)*** 0.443 (0.020)
Lab 1.10 (0.77–1.43) 0.80 (0.45–1.15) 0.075 (0.48)
MASElbow Clinic 1.91 (1.54–2.28) 1.18 (0.82–1.53) 0.001 (1.08)*** 0.892 (0.001)
Lab 1.21 (0.77–1.66) 0.76 (0.40–1.12) 0.013 (0.71)*
  1. The mean and 95% confidence intervals for each measurement of the clinical assessments, and the probabilities with the estimated effect sizes of the statistical analyses. Intragroup differences with statistical significance are marked with ‘*’ (“*” for paired t-tests). Significant levels are indicated as, 1 asterisk for < 0.05, 2 asterisks for ≤ 0.01, and 3 asterisks for ≤ 0.001