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Table 3 The pre-clinical assessments of each group

From: Translation of robot-assisted rehabilitation to clinical service: a comparison of the rehabilitation effectiveness of EMG-driven robot hand assisted upper limb training in practical clinical service and in clinical trial with laboratory configuration for chronic stroke

Clinical score Clinic Group Lab group P values (Cohen’s d)
FMAfull score 13.75 ± 11.44 17.50 ± 15.26 0.438 (0.28)
FMAshoulder/elbow 10.31 ± 8.14 12.44 ± 10.48 0.527 (0.23)
FMAwrist/hand 3.44 ± 4.18 5.06 ± 5.50 0.354 (0.33)
ARAT 3.81 ± 8.30 11.69 ± 12.18 0.041 (0.76)*
FIM 56.63 ± 9.25 58.50 ± 14.09 0.660 (0.16)
MASfinger 1.70 ± 0.76 1.34 ± 1.08 0.279 (0.39)
MASwrist 1.65 ± 0.95 1.10 ± 0.66 0.066 (0.67)
MASelbow 1.91 ± 0.74 1.21 ± 1.10 0.044 (0.75)*
  1. The mean and standard deviations (SD) for each measurement of the pre-clinical assessments, and the probabilities with the estimated effect sizes of the statistical analyses. Intergroup differences with statistical significance are marked with ‘*’ (P < 0.05, independent t-tests)
  2. FMA Fugl-Meyer Assessment, ARAT Action Research Arm Test, FIM functional independence measure, MAS Modified Ashworth Scale