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Table 3 Mean (standard deviation) values of the percentage change in balance parameters in three balance groups

From: Proprioceptive impairments in high fall risk older adults: the effect of mechanical calf vibration on postural balance

Eyes-open Healthy young Healthy older adults High fall risk p valuea Effect size
Ankle sway
 Medial–lateral 30 Hz, % 143 (100) 29 (48) 23 (49) F(2,51) = 0.14; p = 0.87 0.56
 Medial–lateral 40 Hz, % 96 (86) 75 (80) 32 (57)
 Anterior–posterior 30 Hz, % 73 (96) 50 (73) 22 (49) F(2,51) = 0.48; p = 0.62 0.47
 Anterior–posterior 40 Hz, % 110 (84) 44 (39) 14 (45)
 Overall 30 Hz, % 95 (526) 85 (121) 23 (59) F(2,51) = 0.20; p = 0.82 0.68
 Overall 40 Hz, % 305 (263) 94 (126) 50 (113)
Hip sway
 Medial–lateral 30 Hz, % 5 (35) 15 (38) 46 (79) F(2,51) = 3.49; p = 0.03* 0.18
 Medial–lateral 40 Hz, % 12 (24) 21 (42) 9 (40)
 Anterior–posterior 30 Hz, % 32 (53) 32 (38) 37 (77) F(2,51) = 1.04; p = 0.36 0.31
 Anterior–posterior 40 Hz, % 76 (78) 46 (115) 3 (51)
 Overall 30 Hz, % 38 (71) 73 (111) 110 (157) F(2,51) = 1.25; p = 0.30 0.08
 Overall 40 Hz, % 120 (117) 44 (80) 15 (86)
COG sway
 Medial–lateral 30 Hz, % 109 (68) 23 (37) 24 (38) F(2,51) = 0.14; p = 0.87 0.57
 Medial–lateral 40 Hz, % 118 (132) 54 (74) 29 (51)
 Anterior–posterior 30 Hz, % 72 (102) 36 (45) 28 (55) F(2,51) = 0.25; p = 0.78 0.36
 Anterior–posterior 40 Hz, % 76 (74) 46 (62) 11 (42)
 Overall 30 Hz, % 391 (653) 61 (53) 59 (120) F(2,51) = 0.53; p = 0.59 0.56
 Overall 40 Hz, % 194 (181) 67 (92) 40 (103)
 Sway velocity 30 Hz, % 158 (74) 188 (154) 123 (93) F(2,51) = 4.12; p = 0.02* 0.38
 Sway velocity 40 Hz, % 193 (163) 225 (89) 100 (69)
Eyes-closed Healthy young Healthy older adults High fall risk p valuea Effect size
Ankle sway
 Medial–lateral 30 Hz, % 47 (42) 63 (89) 4 (25) F(2,51) = 7.80; p < 0.01* 0.50
 Medial–lateral 40 Hz, % 42 (51) 75 (57) 14 (33)
 Anterior–posterior 30 Hz, % 71 (78) 20 (47) − 9 (12) F(2,51) = 1.39; p = 0.26 0.66
 Anterior–posterior 40 Hz, % 98 (73) 52 (90) 1 (28)
 Overall 30 Hz, % 165 (213) 82 (176) − 4 (34) F(2,51) = 1.93; p = 0.16 0.54
 Overall 40 Hz, % 180 (145) 113 (132) 17 (59)
Hip sway
 Medial–lateral 30 Hz, % − 16 (16) − 13 (30) − 6 (31) F(2,51) = 21.43; p < 0.0001* 0.28
 Medial–lateral 40 Hz, % − 12 (21) 4 (49) 25 (58)
 Anterior–posterior 30 Hz, % 22 (38) 11 (66) 6 (43) F(2,51) = 0.54; p = 0.59 0.10
 Anterior–posterior 40 Hz, % − 12 (21) 4 (49) 25 (58)
 Overall 30 Hz, % − 08 (44) 9 (40) 13 (81) F(2,51) = 9.50; p < 0.001* 0.17
 Overall 40 Hz, % 14 (47) 21 (75) 48 (110)
COG sway
 Medial–lateral 30 Hz, % 22 (30) 46 (72) − 2 (18) F(2,51) = 9.20; p < 0.001* 0.45
 Medial–lateral 40 Hz, % 18 (34) 47 (45) 13 (30)
 Anterior–posterior 30 Hz, % 57 (84) 20 (53) − 3 (30) F(2,51) = 0.78; p = 0.46 0.41
 Anterior–posterior 40 Hz, % 61 (65) 40 (66) 9 (38)
 Overall 30 Hz, % 93 (133) 67 (168) − 5 (30) F(2,51) = 2.12; p = 0.13 0.34
 Overall 40 Hz, % 86 (100) 59 (100) 24 (60)
 Sway velocity 30 Hz, % 108 (53) 162 (92) 60 (39) F(2,51) = 8.89; p < 0.001* 0.64
 Sway velocity 40 Hz, % 139 (82) 173 (109) 61 (43)
  1. COG center of gravity
  2. * Significant p value
  3. aANOVA models were adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index