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Table 2 Mean (standard deviation) values of baseline balance parameters (no vibration) between balance groups

From: Proprioceptive impairments in high fall risk older adults: the effect of mechanical calf vibration on postural balance

Eyes-open Healthy young Healthy older adults High fall risk p valuea Effect size
Ankle sway
 Medial–lateral, deg 1.21 (0.55) 1.38 (0.60) 1.69 (0.80) F(2,24) = 2.14; p = 0.14 0.31
 Anterior–posterior, deg 1.64 (0.66) 1.65 (0.66) 2.07 (1.03) F(2,24) = 2.37; p = 0.12 0.26
 Overall, deg2 1.82 (1.23) 2.04 (1.31) 2.84 (2.56) F(2,24) = 2.81; p = 0.08 0.26
Hip sway
 Medial–lateral, deg 1.09 (0.37) 1.00 (0.20) 1.31 (0.38) F(2,24) = 2.16; p = 0.14 0.41
 Anterior–posterior, deg 2.40 (1.22) 1.94 (0.76) 3.20 (1.73) F(2,24) = 2.54; p = 0.10 0.42
 Overall, deg2 2.26 (1.92) 1.61 (1.03) 3.17 (1.88) F(2,24) = 2.02; p = 0.15 0.40
COG sway
 Medial–lateral, cm 0.48 (0.21) 0.53 (0.19) 0.64 (0.30) F(2,24) = 2.58; p = 0.10 0.29
 Anterior–posterior, cm 0.89 (0.29) 0.93 (0.30) 1.08 (0.42) F(2,24) = 1.11; p = 0.35 0.24
 Overall, cm2 0.40 (0.27) 0.40 (0.23) 0.58 (0.43) F(2,24) = 2.76; p = 0.08 0.27
 Sway velocity, cm/s 0.66 (0.09) 0.84 (0.22) 0.84 (0.26) F(2,24) = 2.88; p = 0.06 0.45
Eyes-closed Healthy young Healthy older adults High fall risk p valuea Effect size
Ankle sway
 Medial–lateral, deg 1.70 (0.58) 1.36 (0.33) 2.23 (0.76) F(2,24) = 5.01; p = 0.02* 0.64
 Anterior–posterior, deg 1.83 (0.93) 2.07 (0.91) 2.45 (0.62) F(2,24) = 1.34; p = 0.28 0.31
 Overall, deg2 2.62 (1.44) 2.49 (1.75) 3.93 (1.96) F(2,24) = 2.87; p = 0.08 0.34
Hip sway
 Medial–lateral, deg 1.63 (0.42) 1.40 (0.42) 1.82 (0.53) F(2,24) = 5.65; p < 0.01* 0.37
 Anterior–posterior, deg 2.64 (0.90) 2.73 (1.01) 4.22 (1.16) F(2,24) = 5.57; p = 0.01* 0.71
 Overall, deg2 3.25 (1.52) 2.94 (1.73) 6.53 (4.09) F(2,24) = 2.87; p < 0.01* 0.67
COG sway
 Medial–lateral, cm 0.76 (0.27) 0.55 (0.14) 0.90 (0.32) F(2,24) = 4.41; p = 0.02* 0.60
 Anterior–posterior, cm 1.05 (0.39) 1.17 (0.51) 1.46 (0.39) F(2,24) = 1.37; p = 0.27 0.40
 Overall, cm2 0.65 (0.33) 0.54 (0.33) 1.04 (0.59) F(2,24) = 3.40; p = 0.05* 0.51
 Sway velocity, cm/s 0.89 (0.23) 0.72 (0.10) 0.95 (0.26) F(2,24) = 3.52; p = 0.04* 0.49
  1. COG center of gravity
  2. * Significant p value
  3. aANOVA models were adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index