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Table 2 Muscle parameters for the piglet simulations. See [16, Table 2, p. 68]

From: Implementation and validation of the extended Hill-type muscle model with robust routing capabilities in LS-DYNA for active human body models

Activation dynamics (Zajac [11]) \(q_0 [~]\) 1.0e−4 \(\tau _\text {q} [s]\) 0.025 \(\beta _\text {q} [~]\) 0.5    
Activation dynamics (Hatze [29]) \(q_0 [~]\) 5.0e−3 c[ ] 1.373e−4 \(\eta [~]\) 5.27e−4 k[ ] 2.9 m[ ] 11.3  
Isometric force \(F_\text {max} [N]\) 30.0 \(l_\text {CE,opt} [m]\) 0.015 \(\Delta W_\text {des} [~]\) 0.14 \(\nu _\text {CE,des} [~]\) 3.0 \(\Delta W_\text {asc} [~]\) 0.57 \(\nu _\text {CE,asc} [~]\) 4.0
Force-velocity hyperbola \(A_\text {rel,0} [~]\) 0.1 \(B_\text {rel,0} [1/s]\) 1.0 \(S_\text {e} [~]\) 2.0 \(F_\text {e} [~]\) 1.8   
PEE \(\mathcal {L}_\text {PEE,0} [~]\) 0.9 \(\nu _\text {PEE} [~]\) 2.5 \(\mathcal {F}_\text {PEE} [~]\) 1.0    
SEE \(l_\text {SEE,0} [m]\) 0.045 \(\Delta U_\text {SEE,nll} [~]\) 0.1825 \(\Delta U_\text {SEE,l} [~]\) 0.073 \(\Delta F_\text {SEE,0} [N]\) 60.0   
SDE \(D_\text {SDE} [~]\) 0.3 \(R_\text {SDE} [~]\) 0.01