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Table 2 Muscle parameters for the piglet simulations. See [16, Table 2, p. 68]

From: Implementation and validation of the extended Hill-type muscle model with robust routing capabilities in LS-DYNA for active human body models

Activation dynamics
(Zajac [11])
\(q_0 [~]\)
1.0e−4
\(\tau _\text {q} [s]\)
0.025
\(\beta _\text {q} [~]\)
0.5
   
Activation dynamics
(Hatze [29])
\(q_0 [~]\)
5.0e−3
c[ ]
1.373e−4
\(\eta [~]\)
5.27e−4
k[ ]
2.9
m[ ]
11.3
 
Isometric force \(F_\text {max} [N]\)
30.0
\(l_\text {CE,opt} [m]\)
0.015
\(\Delta W_\text {des} [~]\)
0.14
\(\nu _\text {CE,des} [~]\)
3.0
\(\Delta W_\text {asc} [~]\)
0.57
\(\nu _\text {CE,asc} [~]\)
4.0
Force-velocity hyperbola \(A_\text {rel,0} [~]\)
0.1
\(B_\text {rel,0} [1/s]\)
1.0
\(S_\text {e} [~]\)
2.0
\(F_\text {e} [~]\)
1.8
  
PEE \(\mathcal {L}_\text {PEE,0} [~]\)
0.9
\(\nu _\text {PEE} [~]\)
2.5
\(\mathcal {F}_\text {PEE} [~]\)
1.0
   
SEE \(l_\text {SEE,0} [m]\)
0.045
\(\Delta U_\text {SEE,nll} [~]\)
0.1825
\(\Delta U_\text {SEE,l} [~]\)
0.073
\(\Delta F_\text {SEE,0} [N]\)
60.0
  
SDE \(D_\text {SDE} [~]\)
0.3
\(R_\text {SDE} [~]\)
0.01