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Table 1 Definitions of the anatomical landmarks of the mandible necessary for determining the morphological parameters

From: Test–retest reliability of mandibular morphology measurements on cone-beam computed tomography-synthesized cephalograms with random head positioning errors

Bony landmark Definition
Cd Condyle The most protruding point on the top of the mandibular condyle
CdP Condyle posterior point The most posterior protruding point of the mandibular condyle
GOP Gonion posterior point The most posterior protruding point of the ramus above the gonion
GO Gonion The midpoint of the contour connecting the ramus and body of the mandible
GOA Gonion anterior point The most protruding point of the mandible before the gonion
Me Menton The center of the inferior border on the mandibular symphysis
Pog Pogonion The most anterior point on the contour of the chin
Gn Gnathion The center of the inferior border on the mandibular symphysis
B B point The innermost point on the contour of the mandible between the incisor and the bony chin
Li Lower central incisor edge The incisal edge of the mandibular central incisor
CP Coronid process The top point of the coronid process
Morphological parameters Definition
Cd-Gn, Cd-B, Cd-Li Parameters related to the changes of the total mandibular length
GO-Pog, GO-Gn, Me-GOA Parameters related to the changes of the mandibular corpus length
Cd-GO, CdP-GOP, Cd-CP Parameters related to the changes of the mandibular ramus length
Li-Me The anterior length of the mandible
Cd-GO-Gn Gonion angle
GO-Gn-Li The angle of the lower anterior teeth