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Table 1 RMS errors

From: Real-time inverse kinematics for the upper limb: a model-based algorithm using segment orientations

Test environment \(\theta _\mathtt{{elv}}\) (°) \(\theta _\mathtt{{sh\_elv}}\) (°) \(\theta _\mathtt{{sh\_rot}}\) (°) \(\theta _\mathtt{{el\_flex}}\) (°) \(\theta _\mathtt{{pro\_sup}}\) (°) \(\theta _\mathtt{{dev\_c}}\) (°) \(\theta _\mathtt{{flex\_c}}\) (°)
OpenSim 0.0429  ± 0.0339 0.0192 ± 0.0053 0.1472 ± 0.0760 0.0764 ± 0.0288 0.6365 ± 0.1701 0.9198 ± 0.2477 2.2916 ± 1.1142
MATLAB 0.0028  ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0014 ± 0.0007 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.0023 ± 0.0041 0.0049 ± 0.0087
PC double 0.0028  ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0014 ± 0.0007 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.0025 ± 0.0051 0.0053 ± 0.0107
PC float 0.0028  ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0016 ± 0.0013 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.4193 ± 0.8995 1.1148 ± 2.4730
PC float mod. 0.0028  ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0016 ± 0.0013 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.0045 ± 0.0092 0.0097 ± 0.0195
ARM M4 double 0.0028 ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0014 ± 0.0007 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.0025 ± 0.0051 0.0053 ± 0.0107
ARM M4 soft float 0.0028  ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0016 ± 0.0013 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.4193 ± 0.8995 1.1147 ± 2.4730
ARM M4 hard float 0.0028 ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0016 ± 0.0013 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.4095 ± 0.9051 1.0944 ± 2.4840
ARM M4 soft float mod. 0.0028 ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0016 ± 0.0013 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.0078 ± 0.0128 0.0170 ± 0.0276
ARM M4 hard float mod. 0.0028 ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0016 ± 0.0013 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.0077 ± 0.0128 0.0167 ± 0.0275
ARM M7 double 0.0028 ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0014 ± 0.0007 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.0025 ± 0.0051 0.0053 ± 0.0107
ARM M7 soft float 0.0028 ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0016 ± 0.0013 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.4193 ± 0.8995 1.1147 ± 2.4730
ARM M7 hard float 0.0028 ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0016 ± 0.0013 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.4095 ± 0.9051 1.0944 ± 2.4840
ARM M7 soft float mod. 0.0028 ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0016 ± 0.0013 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.0078 ± 0.0128 0.0170 ± 0.0276
ARM M7 hard float mod. 0.0028 ± 0.0003 0.0006 ± 0.0002 0.0016 ± 0.0013 0.0005 ± 0.0002 0.0008 ± 0.0006 0.0077 ± 0.0128 0.0167 ± 0.0275
  1. Each row represents a separate test environment for the reference (OpenSim) and proposed inverse kinematics algorithm. The columns show mean ± standard deviation joint angle RMS errors across all valid trials (59 for OpenSim, 100 otherwise) for each test environment